AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 974–985 | Cite as

Neighborhood-Level Correlates of Consistent Condom Use among Men Who have Sex with Men: A Multi-Level Analysis

  • Victoria FryeEmail author
  • Beryl Koblin
  • John Chin
  • John Beard
  • Shannon Blaney
  • Perry Halkitis
  • David Vlahov
  • Sandro Galea
Original Paper


There is growing evidence that the neighborhood environment influences sexual behavior and related outcomes, but little work has focused specifically on men who have sex with men (MSM). Using interview data from a probability sample of 385 young MSM living in New York City, recruited at public venues in 1999 and 2000 as part of the Young Men’s Survey-New York City, and data on neighborhood characteristics obtained from the U.S. Census 2000, we conducted multi-level analyses of the associations between neighborhood-level characteristics and consistent condom use during anal intercourse, while controlling for individual-level sociodemographic and other factors. After adjusting for individual-level factors, neighborhood-level gay presence remained significantly and positively associated with consistent condom use during anal intercourse. This finding suggests that neighborhoods with a significant gay presence may have norms that act to discourage high risk sexual activity.


Sexual HIV risk behavior MSM Urban neighborhood Multi-level analysis Condom use Neighborhood environment 



At the time of this work, Dr. Frye was a Research Investigator at the New York Academy of Medicine, Center for Urban Epidemiologic Studies. Informed consent was obtained from all participants and human experimentation guidelines of the US Department of Health and Human Services and of the authors’ institutions were followed in the conduct of this study. This research was supported by a contract to the New York Blood Center from the New York City Department of Health (contract no. 97AR15201ROA01) and by a cooperative agreement between the New York City Department of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (062/CCU206208-07), and by a career development award (DA-020774) to Dr. Frye from the National Institute of Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victoria Frye
    • 1
    Email author
  • Beryl Koblin
    • 2
  • John Chin
    • 3
  • John Beard
    • 4
  • Shannon Blaney
    • 4
  • Perry Halkitis
    • 5
  • David Vlahov
    • 4
  • Sandro Galea
    • 6
  1. 1.Urban Public Health ProgramHunter College, City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Laboratory of Infectious Disease PreventionNew York Blood CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Hunter CollegeCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Center for Urban Epidemiologic StudiesNew York Academy of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human DevelopmentNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  6. 6.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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