AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 289–299 | Cite as

Anxiety and Depression Symptoms as Risk Factors for Non-adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Brazil

  • Lorenza Nogueira Campos
  • Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães
  • Robert H. Remien
Original Paper


Depression and anxiety are common among HIV-infected people and rank among the strongest predictors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This longitudinal study aimed to assess whether symptoms of anxiety and depression are predictors of non-adherence among patients initiating ART at two public referral centers (n = 293) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Prevalence of severe anxiety and depression symptoms before starting ART was 12.6% and 5.8%, respectively. Severe anxiety was a predictor of non-adherence to ART during follow-up period (RH = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.14–3.06) adjusted for low education, unemployment, alcohol use in the last month and symptoms of AIDS; while a history of injection drug use had borderline statistical significance with non-adherence. These findings suggest that using a brief screening procedure to assess anxiety and depression symptoms before initiating ART help identify individuals for interventions to improve adherence and quality of life.


Anxiety Depression Psychiatric symptoms Non-adherence Antiretroviral therapy 



This study was financed in the framework of the ATAR Project (Adherence Study Among Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Treatment), sponsored by the Pan-American Health Organization and the AIDS National Program of the Brazilian Ministry of Health (PN-DST/AIDS Brasil—UNESCO 914/BRA/3014) and was developed by the Research Group on Epidemiology and Health Services Evaluation (Grupo de Pesquisas em Epidemiologia e Avaliação em Saúde—GPEAS) from the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorenza Nogueira Campos
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães
    • 1
    • 2
  • Robert H. Remien
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, School of MedicineFederal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral StudiesNew York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia UniversityNew York CityUSA

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