AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 12, Supplement 1, pp 131–141 | Cite as

Implementation Challenges to Using Respondent-Driven Sampling Methodology for HIV Biological and Behavioral Surveillance: Field Experiences in International Settings

  • Lisa Grazina Johnston
  • Mohsen Malekinejad
  • Carl Kendall
  • Irene M. Iuppa
  • George W. Rutherford
Original Paper

Abstract

Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), we gathered data from 128 HIV surveillance studies conducted outside the United States through October 1, 2007. We examined predictors of poor study outcomes, reviewed operational, design and analytical challenges associated with conducting RDS in international settings and offer recommendations to improve HIV surveillance. We explored factors for poor study outcomes using differences in mean sample size ratios (recruited/calculated sample size) as the outcome variable. Ninety-two percent of studies reported both calculated and recruited sample sizes. Studies of injecting drug users had a higher sample size ratio compared with other risk groups. Study challenges included appropriately defining eligibility criteria, structuring social network size questions, selecting design effects and conducting statistical analysis. As RDS is increasingly used for HIV surveillance, it is important to learn from past practical, theoretical and analytical challenges to maximize the utility of this method.

Keywords

HIV/AIDS Most-at-risk populations Respondent-driven sampling Biological and behavioral surveillance 

References

  1. Abdul-Quader, A. S., Heckathorn, D. D., Sabin, K., & Saidel, T. (2006). Implementation and analysis of respondent driven sampling: Lessons learned from the field. Journal of Urban Health, 83(Suppl. 7), 231–35. doi:10.1007/s11524-006-9029-6.Google Scholar
  2. Broadhead, R. S., Heckathorn, D. D., Grund, J. C., Stern, S., & Anthony, D. L. (1995). Drug users versus outreach workers in combating AIDS: Preliminary results of a peer-driven intervention. Journal of Drug Issues, 25(3), 531–564.Google Scholar
  3. Broadhead, R. S., Heckathorn, D. D., Weakliem, D., Anthony, D. L., Madray, H., Mills, R., et al. (1998). Harnessing peer networks as an instrument for AIDS prevention: Results from a peer-driven intervention. Public Health Reports, 113(Suppl. 1), 42–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chopra, M., Townsend, L., Johnston, L. G., Mathews, C., Shaikh, N., Tomlinson, M., et al. (2008). Sexual risk behaviour among men with multiple, concurrent female sexual partners in an informal settlement on the outskirts of cape town. MRC Policy Report, South Africa, April 2008.Google Scholar
  5. Erickson, B. H. (1979). Some problems of inference from chain data. Sociological Methodology, 10, 276–302.Google Scholar
  6. Family Health International (2000). Behavioral surveillance surveys: Guidelines for repeated behavioral surveys in populations at risk of HIV. Arlington, VA: Family Health International. Available at: http://www.fhi.org/en/HIVAIDS/pub/guide/bssguidelines.htm.
  7. Family Health International (2001). Evaluating programs for HIV/AIDS prevention and care in developing countries. Arlington, VA: Family Health International. Available at: http://www.fhi.org/en/HIVAIDS/pub/Archive/evalchap/index.htm.
  8. Frost, S. D., Brouwer, K. C., Firestone Cruz, M. A., Ramos, R., Ramos, M. E., Lozada, R. M., et al. (2006). Respondent-driven sampling of injection drug users in two U.S.-Mexico border cities: Recruitment dynamics and impact on estimates of HIV and syphilis prevalence. Journal of Urban Health, 83(Suppl. 7), 83–97. doi:10.1007/s11524-006-9104-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Heckathorn, D. D. (1997). Respondent driven sampling: A new approach to the study of hidden populations. Social Problems, 44, 174–199. doi:10.1525/sp.1997.44.2.03x0221m.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Heckathorn, D. D. (2002). Respondent driven sampling II: Deriving valid population estimates from chain-referral samples of hidden populations. Social Problems, 49, 11–34. doi:10.1525/sp.2002.49.1.11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heckathorn, D. D. (2007). Extensions of respondent driven sampling: Analyzing continuous variables and controlling for differential recruitment. Sociological Methodology, 37(1), 151–207. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9531.2007.00188.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Heckathorn, D. D., Broadhead, R. S., Anthony, D. L., & Weakliem, D. (1999). AIDS and social networks: HIV prevention through network mobilization. Sociological Focus, 32, 159–179.Google Scholar
  13. Heckathorn, D. D., Semaan, S., Broadhead, R. S., & Hughes, J. J. (2002). Extensions of respondent-driven sampling: A new approach to the study of injection drug users aged 18–25. AIDS and Behavior, 6(1), 55–67. doi:10.1023/A:1014528612685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnston, L. G. (2007). Conducting respondent driven sampling (RDS) in diverse settings: A manual for planning RDS studies. Atlanta, GA/Arlington, VA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Family Health International.Google Scholar
  15. Johnston, L. G., Khanam, R., Reza, M., Khan, S. I., Banu, S., Alam, M. S., et al. (2007b). The effectiveness of respondent driven sampling for recruiting males who have sex with males in Dhaka, Bangladesh. AIDS and Behavior, 12(2), 294–304.Google Scholar
  16. Johnston, L. G., O’Bra, H., Chopra, M., Mathews, C., Townsend, L., Sabin, K., et al. (2008). The associations of HIV risk perception and voluntary counseling and testing acceptance to HIV status and risk behaviors among men with multiple sex partners in a South African township. AIDS and Behavior [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  17. Johnston, L. G., Sabin, K., Hien, M. T., & Huong, P. T. (2006). Assessment of respondent driven sampling for recruiting female sex workers in two Vietnamese cities: Reaching the unseen sex worker. Journal of Urban Health, 83(Suppl. 7), 16–28. doi:10.1007/s11524-006-9099-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kemeny, J., & Snell, J. (1960). Finite Markov chains. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  19. Ma, X., Zhang, Q., He, X., Zhao, J., Sun, W., Yue, H., et al. (2008). Trends in prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men: Results of three consecutive respondent-driven sampling surveys in Beijing, 2004–2006. Journal of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 45(5), 581–587.Google Scholar
  20. Magnani, R., Sabin, K., Saidel, T., & Heckathorn, D. D. (2005). Sampling hard to reach and hidden populations for HIV surveillance. AIDS, 19(Suppl. 2), S67–S72. doi:10.1097/01.aids.0000172879.20628.e1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Malekinejad, M., Johnston, L. G., Kendall, C., Kerr, L. G. F. S., Rifkin, M., & Rutherford, G. W. (2008). Using respondent-driven sampling methodology for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance in international settings: A systematic review. AIDS and Behavior, in press.Google Scholar
  22. Ogunnaike-Cooke, S., & Bombereau, G. (2007). Report of the pilot behavioral and HIV seroprevalence surveillance surveys of men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW) in Antigua and Barbuda and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Caribbean Epidemiology Centre-Special Programme on Sexually Transmitted Infections.Google Scholar
  23. Platt, L., Bobrova, N., Rhodes, T., Uusküla, A., Parry, J., Rüütel, K., Talu, A., Abel, K., Rajaleid, K., & Judd, A. (2006). High HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in Estonia: Implications for understanding the risk environment. AIDS, 20(16), 2120–2123.Google Scholar
  24. Salganik, M. J. (2006). Variance estimation, design effects and sample size calculations for respondent driven sampling. Journal of Urban Health, 83(Suppl. 7), 98–112. doi:10.1007/s11524-006-9106-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Salganik, M. J., & Heckathorn, D. D. (2004). Sampling and estimation in hidden populations using respondent-driven sampling. Sociological Methodology, 34, 193–239. doi:10.1111/j.0081-1750.2004.00152.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Semaan, S., Lauby, J., & Liebman, J. (2002). Street and network sampling in evaluation studies of HIV risk-reduction interventions. AIDS in Review, 4, 213–223.Google Scholar
  27. Simic, M., Johnston, L. G., Platt, L., Baros, S., Andjelkovic, V., Novotny, T., et al. (2006). Exploring barriers to ‘respondent driven sampling’ in sex worker and drug-injecting sex worker populations in eastern Europe. Journal of Urban Health, 83(Suppl. 7), 6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stulhofer, A., Bacak, V., Bozicevic, I., & Begovac, J. (2007). HIV-related sexual risk taking among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Zagreb, Croatia. AIDS and Behavior. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  29. Trummal, A., Fischer, K., & Raudne, R. (2006). HIV-Nakkuse Levimus ning Riskikäitumine Prostitutsiooni Kaasatud Naiste Hulgas Tallinnas. Uurimuse Raport. Tallinn, Estonia: Tervise Arengu Insituut.Google Scholar
  30. Trummal, A., Johnston, L. G., & Lõhmus, L. (2007). Men having sex with men in Tallinn: Pilot study using respondent driven sampling: Final study report. Tallinn, Estonia: National Institute for Health Development.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa Grazina Johnston
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohsen Malekinejad
    • 3
    • 4
  • Carl Kendall
    • 1
  • Irene M. Iuppa
    • 3
  • George W. Rutherford
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Public Health and Tropical MedicineTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Santa FeUSA
  3. 3.Global Health SciencesUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.School of Public HealthUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations