AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 118–132 | Cite as

The Role of Host Genetics in the Susceptibility for HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders

  • Andrew J. Levine
  • Elyse J. Singer
  • Paul Shapshak
Original Paper

Abstract

Despite progress in the treatment of the Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there continues to be a high prevalence of infected individuals who develop neurocognitive deficits and disorders. Our understanding of the potential cause of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continues to develop on many fronts. Among them is the study of host genetics. Here, we review the most current information regarding the association between host genetics and risk for HIV infection, AIDS, and HAND. We focus on the role of dopamine dysfunction in the etiology of HAND, and propose a number of genetic polymorphisms within genes related to dopaminergic functioning and other neurobiological factors that may confer vulnerability or protection against HAND.

Keywords

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders Polymorphism Dopamine HIV-encephalitis HIV-associated dementia 

Abbreviations

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HAND

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

HACMC

HIV-1-associated cognitive/motor complex

MCMD

HIV-1-associated minor cognitive/motor disorder

HAD

HIV-associated dementia

CNS

Central nervous system

CCR

Chemokine receptor

MCP-1

Monocyte chemo attractant protein-1

HIVE

HIV encephalitis

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

IL

Interleukin

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

fMRI

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

MRS

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

PET

Positron emission tomography

DA

Dopamine

DAT1

Dopamine transporter

DRD

Dopamine receptor

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

HAART

Highly active antiretroviral therapy

GP

Genetic polymorphism

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid

SDF-1

Stromal cell-derived factor-1

RANTES

Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed, and Secreted

COMT

Catechol-O-methyltransferase

VNTR

Variable nucleotide tandem repeat

ADHD

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

DBH

Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase

BNDF

Brain derived neurotrophic factor

ApoE

Apolipoprotein E

DARPP-32

Dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of molecular weight 32 kDa

NNTC

National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium

MACS

Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew J. Levine
    • 1
  • Elyse J. Singer
    • 1
  • Paul Shapshak
    • 2
  1. 1.National Neurological AIDS Bank, Department of NeurologyUniversity of California Los Angeles – David Geffen School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Psychiatry & Behavioral Medicine and Medicine (Division of Infectious Diseases)University of South Florida – College of MedicineTampaUSA

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