AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 118–132 | Cite as

The Role of Host Genetics in the Susceptibility for HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders

  • Andrew J. Levine
  • Elyse J. Singer
  • Paul Shapshak
Original Paper


Despite progress in the treatment of the Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there continues to be a high prevalence of infected individuals who develop neurocognitive deficits and disorders. Our understanding of the potential cause of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continues to develop on many fronts. Among them is the study of host genetics. Here, we review the most current information regarding the association between host genetics and risk for HIV infection, AIDS, and HAND. We focus on the role of dopamine dysfunction in the etiology of HAND, and propose a number of genetic polymorphisms within genes related to dopaminergic functioning and other neurobiological factors that may confer vulnerability or protection against HAND.


HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders Polymorphism Dopamine HIV-encephalitis HIV-associated dementia 



Human immunodeficiency virus


HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders


Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome


HIV-1-associated cognitive/motor complex


HIV-1-associated minor cognitive/motor disorder


HIV-associated dementia


Central nervous system


Chemokine receptor


Monocyte chemo attractant protein-1


HIV encephalitis


Tumor necrosis factor




Magnetic resonance imaging


Functional magnetic resonance imaging


Magnetic resonance spectroscopy


Positron emission tomography




Dopamine transporter


Dopamine receptor


Cerebrospinal fluid


Highly active antiretroviral therapy


Genetic polymorphism


Messenger ribonucleic acid


Stromal cell-derived factor-1


Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed, and Secreted




Variable nucleotide tandem repeat


Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder




Brain derived neurotrophic factor


Apolipoprotein E


Dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of molecular weight 32 kDa


National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium


Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew J. Levine
    • 1
  • Elyse J. Singer
    • 1
  • Paul Shapshak
    • 2
  1. 1.National Neurological AIDS Bank, Department of NeurologyUniversity of California Los Angeles – David Geffen School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Psychiatry & Behavioral Medicine and Medicine (Division of Infectious Diseases)University of South Florida – College of MedicineTampaUSA

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