AIDS and Behavior

, 13:328

Associations Between Substance Use, Erectile Dysfunction Medication and Recent HIV Infection Among Men Who have Sex with Men

  • Lydia N. Drumright
  • Pamina M. Gorbach
  • Susan J. Little
  • Steffanie A. Strathdee
Original Paper

Abstract

We conducted a case-control study to compare illicit substance and erectile dysfunction medication (EDM) use between recently HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM). Eighty-six recently (previous 12 months) HIV-infected MSM (cases) and 59 MSM who recently tested HIV-negative (controls) completed computer-assisted self-interviews. There were no statistical differences in demographics or number of sexual partners by HIV status. Cases were more likely than controls to report methamphetamine or nitrite use, but not EDM, gamma hydroxybutyrate, 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine, cocaine, or marijuana use, in the previous 12 months and with their last three sexual partners in multivariate logistic regression models. Use of nitrites and amphetamine may increase HIV risk among MSM.

Keywords

HIV Primary infection Recent infection MSM Drug use Substance use Methamphetamine Volatile nitrites Sildenafil Erectile dysfunction medication 

References

  1. Brewer, D. D., Golden, M. R., & Handsfield, H. H. (2006). Unsafe sexual behavior and correlates of risk in a probability sample of men who have sex with men in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33, 250–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buchbinder, S., Vittinghoff, E., Heagerty, P., Celum, C., Seage, G., Judson, F. N., et al. (2005). Sexual risk, nitrite inhalant use, and lack of circumcision associated with HIV seroconversion in men who have sex with men in the United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 39, 82–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burcham, J. L., Tindall, B., Marmor, M., Cooper, D. A., Berry, G., & Penny, R. (1989). Incidence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion in a cohort of Sydney homosexual men. The Medical Journal of Australia, 150, 634–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Celentano, D. D., Valleroy, L. A., Sifakis, F., MacKellar, D. A., Hylton, J., Thiede, H., et al. (2006). Associations between substance use and sexual risk among very young men who have sex with men. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33, 265–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chesney, M. A., Barrett, D. C., & Stall, R. (2005). Histories of substance use and risk behavior: Precursors to HIV seroconversion in homosexual men. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 113–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chmiel, J. S., Detels, R., Kaslow, R. A., van Raden, M., Kingsley, L. A., & Brookmeyer, R. (1987). Factors associated with prevalent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 126, 568–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Choi, K. H., Operario, D., Gregorich, S. E., McFarland, W., MacKellar, D., & Valleroy, L. (2005). Substance use, substance choice, and unprotected anal intercourse among young Asian American and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men. Aids Education and Prevention, 17, 418–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chu, P. L., McFarland, W., Gibson, S., Weide, D., Henne, J., Miller, P., et al. (2003). Viagra use in a community-recruited sample of men who have sex with men, San Francisco. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 33, 191–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clutterbuck, D. J., Gorman, D., McMillan, A., Lewis, R., & Macintyre, C. C. (2001). Substance use and unsafe sex amongst homosexual men in Edinburgh. AIDS Care, 13, 527–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colfax, G., Coates, T. J., Husnik, M. J., Huang, Y., Buchbinder, S., Koblin, B., et al. (2005). Longitudinal patterns of methamphetamine, popper (amyl nitrite), and cocaine use and high-risk sexual behavior among a cohort of San Francisco men who have sex with men. Journal of Urban Health, 82, i62–i70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Colfax, G. N., Mansergh, G., Guzman, R., Vittinghoff, E., Marks, G., Rader, M., et al. (2001). Drug use and sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men who attend circuit parties: A venue-based comparison. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 28, 373–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Crosby, R., & DiClemente, R. J. (2004). Use of recreational Viagra among men having sex with men. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 80, 466–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Daar, E. S., Little, S., Pitt, J., Santangelo, J., Ho, P., Harawa, N., et al. (2001). Diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection. Annals of Internal Medicine, 134, 25–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Drumright, L. N., Little, S. J., Strathdee, S. A., Slymen, D. J., Araneta, M. R. G., Malcarne, et al. (2006). Unprotected anal intercourse and substance use among men who have sex with men with recent HIV infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 43, 344–350.Google Scholar
  15. Ekstrand, M. L., Stall, R. D., Paul, J. P., Osmond, D. H., & Coates, T. J. (1999). Gay men report high rates of unprotected anal sex with partners of unknown or discordant HIV status. AIDS, 13, 1525–1533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ghanem, K. G., Hutton, H. E., Zenilman, J. M., Zimba, R., & Erbelding, E. J. (2005). Audio computer assisted self interview and face to face interview modes in assessing response bias among STD clinic patients. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 81, 421–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gillmore, M. R., Morrision, D. M., Leigh, B. C., Hoppe, M. J., Gaylord, J., & Rainey, D. T. (2002). Does “high = high risk”? An event-based analysis of the relationship between substance use and unprotected anal sex among gay and bisexual men. AIDS and Behavior, 6, 361–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harawa, N. T., Greenland, S., Bingham, T. A., Johnson, D. F., Cochran, S. D., Cunningham, W. E., et al. (2004). Associations of race/ethnicity with HIV prevalence and HIV-related behaviors among young men who have sex with men in 7 urban centers in the United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 35, 526–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hayaki, J., Anderson, B., & Stein, M. (2006). Sexual risk behaviors among substance users: Relationship to impulsivity. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, 328–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hewitt, M. (2002). Attitudes toward interview mode and comparability of reporting sexual behavior by personal interview and audio computer-assisted self-interviewing—Analyses of the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Sociological Methods & Research, 31, 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hirshfield, S., Remien, R. H., Humberstone, M., Walavalkar, I., & Chiasson, M. A. (2004a). Substance use and high-risk sex among men who have sex with men: A national online study in the USA. AIDS Care, 16, 1036–1047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hirshfield, S., Remien, R. H., Walavalkar, I., & Chiasson, M. A. (2004b). Crystal methamphetamine use predicts incident STD infection among men who have sex with men recruited online: A nested case-control study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 6, 42–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kalichman, S. C., Heckman, T., & Kelly, J. A. (1996). Sensation seeking as an explanation for the association between substance use and HIV-related risky sexual behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 141–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kim, A. A., Kent, C. K., & Klausner, J. D. (2002). Increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted disease transmission among gay or bisexual men who use Viagra, San Francisco 2000–2001. AIDS, 16, 1425–1428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Klitzman, R. L., Greenberg, J. D., Pollack, L. M., & Dolezal, C. (2002). MDMA (‘ecstasy’) use, and its association with high risk behaviors, mental health, and other factors among gay/bisexual men in New York City. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 66, 115–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klitzman, R. L., Pope, H. G., & Hudson, J. I. (2000). MDMA (“ecstasy”) abuse and high-risk sexual behaviors among 169 gay and bisexual men. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1162–1164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koblin, B. A., Husnik, M. J., Colfax, G., Huang, Y. J., Madison, M., Mayer, K., et al. (2006). Risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men. AIDS, 20, 731–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kurth, A. E., Martin, D. P., Golden, M. R., Weiss, N. S., Heagerty, P. J., Spielberg, F., et al. (2004). A comparison between audio computer-assisted self-interviews and clinician interviews for obtaining the sexual history. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 31, 719–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee, S. J., Galanter, M., Dermatis, H., & McDowell, D. (2003). Circuit parties and patterns of drug use in a subset of gay men. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 22, 47–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Little, S. J., Daar, E. S., D’Aquila, R. T., Keiser, P. H., Connick, E., Whitcomb, J. M., et al. (1999). Reduced antiretroviral drug susceptibility among patients with primary HIV infection. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 1142–1149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mansergh, G., Shouse, R. L., Marks, G., Guzman, R., Rader, M., Buchbinder, S., et al. (2006). Methamphetamine and sildenafil (Viagra) use are linked to unprotected receptive and insertive anal sex, respectively, in a sample of men who have sex with men. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 82, 131–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mccoul, M. D., & Haslam, N. (2001). Predicting high risk sexual behaviour in heterosexual and homosexual men: The roles of impulsivity and sensation seeking. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 1303–1310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Molitor, F., Truax, S. R., Ruiz, J. D., & Sun, R. K. (1998). Associations with methamphetamine use during sex with risky sexual behaviors and HIV infection among non-injection drug users. Western Journal of Medicine, 168, 93–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Morin, S. F., Steward, W. T., Charlebois, E. D., Remien, R. H., Pinkerton, S. D., Johnson, M. O., et al. (2005). Predicting HIV transmission risk among HIV-infected men who have sex with men—Findings from the Healthy Living Project. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 40, 226–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mulry, G., Kalichman, S. C., & Kelly, J. A. (1994). Substance use and unsafe sex among gay men—Global versus situational use of substances. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 20, 175–184.Google Scholar
  36. Murphy, D. A., Durako, S., Muenz, L. R., & Wilson, C. M. (2000). Marijuana use among HIV-positive and high-risk adolescents: A comparison of self-report through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviewing and urinalysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 152, 805–813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ostrow, D. G., Beltran, E. D., Joseph, J. G., Difranceisco, W., Wesch, J., & Chmiel, J. S. (1993). Recreational drugs and sexual behavior in the Chicago MACS/CCS cohort of homosexually active men. Chicago Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS)/Coping and Change Study. Journal of Substance Abuse, 5, 311–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ostrow, D. G., DiFranceisco, W. J., Chmiel, J. S., Wagstaff, D. A., & Wesch, J. (1995). A case-control study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion and risk-related behaviors in the Chicago MACS/CCS Cohort, 1984–1992. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Coping and Change Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 142, 875–883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. PageShafer, K., Veugelers, P. J., Moss, A. R., Strathdee, S., Kaldor, J. M., & vanGriensven, G. J. P. (1997). Sexual risk behavior and risk factors for HIV-1 seroconversion in homosexual men participating in the tricontinental seroconverter study, 1982–1994. American Journal of Epidemiology, 146, 531–542.Google Scholar
  40. Paschall, M. J., Ornstein, M. L., & Flewelling, R. L. (2001). African American male adolescents’ involvement in the criminal justice system: The criterion validity of self-report measures in a prospective study. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38, 174–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Patterson, T. L., Semple, S. J., Zians, J. K., & Strathdee, S. A. (2005). Methamphetamine-using HIV-positive men who have sex with men: Correlates of polydrug use. Journal of Urban Health, 82, I120–I126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Paul, J. P., Pollack, L., Osmond, D., & Catania, J. A. (2005). Viagra (sildenafil) use in a population-based sample of U.S. men who have sex with men. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 32, 531–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Perlis, T. E., Des Jarlais, D. C., Friedman, S. R., Arasteh, K., & Turner, C. F. (2004). Audio-computerized self-interviewing versus face-to-face interviewing for research data collection at drug abuse treatment programs. Addiction, 99, 885–896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Plankey, M. W., Ostrow, D. G., Stall, R., Cox, C., Li, X., Peck, J.A., et al. (2007). The relationship between methamphetamine and popper use and risk of HIV seroconversion in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 45, 85–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Purcell, D. W., Wolitski, R. J., Hoff, C. C., Parsons, J. T., Woods W. J., & Halkitis, P. N. (2005). Predicotrs of the use of Viagra, testosterone, and antidepressants among HIV-seropositive gay and bisexual men. AIDS, 19, S57–S66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rogers, S. M., Willis, G., Al Tayyib, A., Villarroel, M. A., Turner, C. F., Ganapathi, L., et al. (2005). Audio computer assisted interviewing to measure HIV risk behaviours in a clinic population. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 81, 501–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rusch, M., Lampinen, T. M., Schilder, A., & Hogg, R. S. (2004). Unprotected anal intercourse associated with recreational drug use among young men who have sex with men depends on partner type and intercourse role. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 31, 492–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sanchez, T. H., & Gallagher, K. M. (2006). Factors associated with recent sildenafil (Viagra) use among men who have sex with men in the United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 42, 95–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schlesselman, J. J. (1982). Case-control studies: Design, conduct, analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Simoes, A. A., Bastos, F. I., Moreira, R. I., Lynch, K. G., & Metzger, D. S. (2006). A randomized trial of audio computer and in-person interview to assess HIV risk among drug and alcohol users in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 30, 237–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Strathdee, S. A., Hogg, R. S., Martindale, S. L., Cornelisse, P. G., Craib, K. J., Montaner, J. S., et al. (1998). Determinants of sexual risk-taking among young HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 19, 61–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. van Griensven, F., Naorat, S., Kilmarx, P. H., Jeeyapant, S., Manopaiboon, C., Chaikummao, S., et al. (2006). Palmtop-assisted self-interviewing for the collection of sensitive behavioral data: Randomized trial with drug use urine testing. American Journal of Epidemiology, 163, 271–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Waldo, C. R., McFarland, W., Katz, M. H., MacKellar, D., & Valleroy, L. A. (2000). Very young gay and bisexual men are at risk for HIV infection: The San Francisco Bay Area Young Men's Survey II. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 24, 168–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Wong, W., Chaw, J. K., Kent, C. K., & Klausner, J. D. (2005). Risk factors for early syphilis among gay and bisexual men seen in an STD clinic: San Francisco, 2002–2003. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 32, 458–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Woody, G. E., Donnell, D., Seage, G. R., Metzger, D., Marmor, M., Koblin, B. A., et al. (1999). Non-injection substance use correlates with risky sex among men having sex with men: Data from HIVNET. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 53, 197–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lydia N. Drumright
    • 1
  • Pamina M. Gorbach
    • 2
  • Susan J. Little
    • 3
  • Steffanie A. Strathdee
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of International Health and Cross-Cultural Medicine, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of MedicineUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and Division of Infectious Disease, School of MedicineUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of Medicine, Antiviral Research CenterUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations