AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 476–482 | Cite as

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with HIV Infection Among Men Having Sex with Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

  • Tuan Anh Nguyen
  • Hien Tran Nguyen
  • Giang Truong Le
  • Roger DetelsEmail author
Original Paper


To learn more about risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam and their prevalence of HIV, we conducted a study among MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) to determine HIV-1 prevalence and behaviors associated with infection. This consisted of formative (35 MSM) and cross-sectional (600 MSM) studies at 72 sites, including 75 transvestites, 55 bisexuals, 10 sex workers, and 460 other MSM. Only 5.3% cohabited with a wife/girlfriend, but 30% reported ever having sex with a female. Prevalence of HIV was 8%, ranging from 33% in sex workers to 7% among transvestites and other MSM. Injecting drugs, selling sex, being 20–40 years old, having less than 6 years of education, and having more than five male anal sex partners in the past month were associated with being HIV-infected. MSM are an HIV bridge group, and should be included in sentinel surveillance. Targeted interventions should be implemented.


HIV Men having sex with men (MSM) Vietnam Injection drug users (IDUs) Commercial sex workers (CSWs) 


  1. An Ninh The Gioi [newspaper]. (2001). Male sex activities in HCMC. Vietnam: No 230, May 30, 2001, p. 5 (in Vietnamese).Google Scholar
  2. An Ninh The Gioi [newspaper]. (2002). Approach direct to gay. Vietnam: No 300, October 10, 2002; p. 16 (in Vietnamese).Google Scholar
  3. Colby, D. J. (2003). HIV knowledge and risk factors among men who have sex with men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Journal of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, 32, 80–85.Google Scholar
  4. Lindan, C. P., Lieu, T. X., Giang, L. T., Lap, V. D., Thuc, N. V., Thinh, T., Lurie, P., & Mandel, J. S. (1997). Rising HIV infection rates in Ho Chi Minh City herald emerging AIDS epidemic in Vietnam. AIDS, 11(Suppl 1), S5–S13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Nguyen, T. A., Hoang, L. T., Pham, V. Q., & Detels, R. (2001). Risk factors for HIV-1 seropositivity in drug users under 30 years old in Haiphong, Vietnam. Addiction, 96, 405–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. St. Pierre, M. (1997). Evaluation of SCF (UK) HIV/AIDS prevention programme for men who have sex with men (MSM): Final report. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: SCF (UK).Google Scholar
  7. Subcommittee for HIV/AIDS Surveillance. (2003). Monthly report on HIV/AIDS in Vietnam. 2003 Report, Hanoi Vietnam.Google Scholar
  8. Tran, S. D., Williams, A. B., Truong, H. T., & Do, N. H. (1998). Risk factors for HIV seropositivity in a sample of drug users in drug treatment in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Journal of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, 17, 283–287.Google Scholar
  9. Tran, N. T., Detels, R., Nguyen, T. H., Hoang, T. L., & Pham, T. H. N. (2004). Drug use, sexual behaviours and practices among male drug users in Hanoi, Vietnam. International Journal of Drug Policy, 15(3), 182–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Wilson, D., & Cawthorne, P. (1999). “Face up to the truth”: helping gay men in Vietnam protect themselves from AIDS. International Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS, 10, 63–66.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tuan Anh Nguyen
    • 1
  • Hien Tran Nguyen
    • 1
  • Giang Truong Le
    • 2
  • Roger Detels
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.National Institute of Hygiene and EpidemiologyHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.Department of Health ServicesHochiminh CityVietnam
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyUCLA School of Public HealthLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations