AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 41–50 | Cite as

Nonsupportive Peer Norms and Incarceration as HIV Risk Correlates for Young Black Men who have Sex with Men

  • Kenneth T. Jones
  • Wayne D. Johnson
  • Darrell P. Wheeler
  • Phyllis Gray
  • Evelyn Foust
  • Juarlyn Gaiter
  • The North Carolina Men’s Health Initiative Study Team
Original Paper


Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are at considerable risk for HIV infection. A convenience sample of BMSM (n = 252) attending nightclubs in three North Carolina cities was surveyed to investigate factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). About 45% reported UAI in the past 2 months. BMSM who strongly agreed that their male friends used condoms for anal sex were significantly less likely to report any UAI. Recently incarcerated men were significantly more likely to report unprotected insertive anal sex. In secondary analyses, men who reported experiencing discrimination based on their race and nongay identified men reported more favorable peer norms for condom use. Men who reported that their family disapproved of their being gay were more likely to have been incarcerated in the past 2 months. HIV prevention for BMSM must promote supportive peer norms for condom use and address incarceration, racial discrimination, and family disapproval.


HIV African American Homosexuality Norms Discrimination Racism 



This research was supported by the CDC and awarded to North Carolina Division of Public Health (grant number U62/CCU423507-02). The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the CDC. The authors would like to acknowledge the following individuals for their contributions to the development and implementation of this study: Jacqueline Clymore, Erica Dunbar, Carolyn Guenther-Grey, H. Mac McCraw, Ann O’Leary, John Peebles, Tomas Rodriguez, Ron Stall, Craig Studer, Richard Wolitski, and the North Carolina Men’s Health Initiative Study Team: Devin Baez, Corey Barr, Debra Bost, Kristina Clay-James, Erica Dunbar, Bernard Davis, Jesse Duncan, Evelyn Foust, Phyllis Gray, Mohammed Griffin, Anthony Hannah, Nicholas Helms, Robert Hinton, Ron Jackson, Guy Jenkins, Wayne Johnson, Kenneth Jones, David Jolly, Steven Little, Jeffery Love, Timika Meekins-Terrell, Sonji Pass, Stanley Phillip, Randy Rogers, LaVerne Reid, LaHoma Romocki, Albert Sanders, Michael Scott, Christopher Turner, Terry Wang, Christopher Watson, and Omar Whiteside. We would also like to thank Kevin Jones, Pilgrim Spikes, and Terry Wang for their critical review of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth T. Jones
    • 1
  • Wayne D. Johnson
    • 1
  • Darrell P. Wheeler
    • 2
  • Phyllis Gray
    • 3
  • Evelyn Foust
    • 3
  • Juarlyn Gaiter
    • 1
  • The North Carolina Men’s Health Initiative Study Team
  1. 1.Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB PreventionCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Hunter College School of Social WorkCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Public HealthRaleighUSA

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