AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 864–871

Even If You Build It, We May Not Come: Correlates of Non-attendance at a Sexual Risk Reduction Workshop for STD Clinic Patients

  • Theresa E. Senn
  • Michael P. Carey
  • Peter A. Vanable
  • Patricia Coury-Doniger
  • Marguerite Urban
Original Paper


Sexual risk reduction interventions have been shown to reduce sexual risk behavior; however, attendance at these interventions is sometimes disappointingly low. To improve recruitment efforts, we investigated whether patient characteristics were associated with non-attendance at a single-session, sexual risk reduction intervention. Patients from an STD clinic (N = 990; 48% female; 64% African American) who were eligible and who agreed to participate in a randomized, clinical trial were invited to a 4-h, sexual risk reduction workshop. Fifty-six percent of those who were invited attended the workshop. Those who did not attend were more likely to be younger, male, Caucasian, and employed. Attendance did not differ as a function of sexual behavior or infection status. These findings identify the population sub-groups who are likely to require special effort to attract to a workshop. We encourage more effective marketing and recruitment approaches for sexual risk reduction programs.


Sexual behavior Health promotion Sexually transmitted diseases HIV Intervention studies 


  1. Babor, T. F., de la Fuente, J. R., Saunders, J. B., & Grant, M. (1992). AUDIT: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Guidelines for use in primary health care. World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  2. Bogart, L. M., & Thorburn, S. (2005). Are HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs a barrier to HIV prevention among African Americans? Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 38, 213–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carey, M. P., Braaten, L. S., Maisto, S. A., Gleason, J. R., Forsyth, A. D., & Durant, L. E. (2000). Using information, motivational enhancement, and skills training to reduce the risk of HIV infection for low-income urban women: A second randomized clinical trial. Health Psychology, 19, 3–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carey, M. P., Carey, K. B., Maisto, S. A., Gordon, C. M., Schroder, K. E., & Vanable, P. A. (2004). Reducing HIV-risk behavior among adults receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 252–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carey, M. P., Maisto, S. A., Kalichman, S. C., Forsyth, A. D., Wright, E. M., & Johnson, B. T. (1997). Enhancing motivation to reduce the risk of HIV infection for economically disadvantaged urban women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 531–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2004. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  7. Copenhaver, M. M., Johnson, B. T., Lee, I., Harman, J. J., Carey, M. P., & the SHARP Research Team (2006). Behavioral HIV risk reduction among people who inject drugs: Meta-analytic evidence of efficacy. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 31, 163–171.Google Scholar
  8. Crepaz, N., Horn, A. K., Rama, S. M., Griffin, T., Deluca, J. B., & Mullins, M. M. et al. (2006). The efficacy of behavioral interventions in reducing HIV risk sex behaviors and incident sexually transmitted disease in Black and Hispanic sexually transmitted disease clinic patients in the United States: A meta-analytic review. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33, 156–162.Google Scholar
  9. DiFranceisco, W., Kelly, J. A., Sikkema, K. J., Somlai, A. M., Murphy, D. A., & Stevenson, L. Y. (1998). Differences between completers and early dropouts from 2 HIV intervention trials: A health belief approach to understanding prevention program attrition. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1068–1073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Glasgow, R. E., Klesges, L. M., Dzewaltowski, D. A., Estabrooks, P. A., & Vogt, T. M. (2006). Evaluating the impact of health promotion programs: Using the RE-AIM framework to form summary measures for decision making involving complex issues. Health Education Research, 21, 688–694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Glasgow, R. E., Vogt, T. M., & Boles, S. M. (1999). Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: The RE-AIM framework. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1322–1327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Holtgrave, D. R., & Curran, J. W. (2006). What works, and what remains to be done, in HIV prevention in the United States. Annual Review of Public Health, 27, 261–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hosmer, D. W., & Lemeshow, S. (2000). Applied logistic regression. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  14. Jemmott, J. B., & Jemmott, L. S. (2000). HIV risk reduction behavioral interventions with heterosexual adolescents. AIDS, 14, S40–S52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnson, B. T., Carey, M. P., Chaudoir, S. R., & Reid, A. E. (2006). Sexual risk reduction for persons living with HIV: Research synthesis of randomized controlled trials, 1993–2004. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 41, 642–650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Johnson, B. T., Carey, M. P., Marsh, K. L., Levin, K. D., & Scott-Sheldon, L. A. J. (2003). Interventions to reduce sexual risk for the human immunodeficiency virus in adolescents, 1985–2000: A research synthesis. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 157, 381–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lauby, J., Kotranski, L., Feighan, K., Collier, K., Semaan, S., & Halbert, J. (1996). Effects of intervention attrition and research attrition on the evaluation of an HIV prevention program. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 663–677.Google Scholar
  18. Moher, D., Schulz, K. F., Altman, D., & the CONSORT Group (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) (2001). The CONSORT statement: Revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 1987–1991.Google Scholar
  19. Pedlow, C. T., & Carey, M. P. (2004). Developmentally appropriate sexual risk reduction interventions for adolescents: Rationale, review of interventions, and recommendations for research and practice. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27, 172–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pinto, R. M., & McKay, M. M. (2006). Lessons learned from African American women about participation in a family-based HIV prevention program. Families in Society, 87, 285–292.Google Scholar
  21. Roffman, R. A., Picciano, J. E., Bolan, M., & Kalichman, S. C. (1997). Factors associated with attrition from an HIV-prevention program for gay and bisexual males. AIDS and Behavior, 1, 125–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rutledge, S. E., Roffman, R. A., Picciano, J. E., Kalichman, S. C., & Berghuis, J. P. (2002). HIV prevention and attrition: Challenges and opportunities. AIDS and Behavior, 6, 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Saunders, J. B., Aasland, O. G., Babor, T. F., de la Fuente, J. R., & Grant, M. (1993). Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption - II. Addiction, 88, 791–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schackman, B. R., Gebo, K. A., Walensky, R. P., Losina, E., Muccio, T., Sax, P. E. et al. (2006). The lifetime cost of current human immunodeficiency virus care in the United States. Medical Care, 44, 990–997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shafii, T., & Burstein, G. R. (2004). An overview of sexually transmitted infections among adolescents. Adolescent Medicine Clinics, 15, 201–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Skinner, H. A. (1982). The Drug Abuse Screening Test. Addictive Behaviors, 7, 363–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Song, J., Lee, M. B., Rotheram-Borus, M. J., & Swendeman, D. (2006). Predictors of intervention adherence among young people living with HIV. American Journal of Health and Behavior, 30, 136–146.Google Scholar
  28. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  29. Thomas, S. B., & Quinn, S. C. (1991). The Tuskegee syphilis study, 1932–1972: Implications for HIV education and AIDS risk education programs in the Black community. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 1498–1505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Walitzer, K. S., Dermen, K. H., & Connors, G. J. (1999). Strategies for preparing clients for treatment. Behavior Modification, 23, 129–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wasserheit, J. (1992). Epidemiological synergy: Interrelationships between human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 19, 61–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theresa E. Senn
    • 1
  • Michael P. Carey
    • 1
  • Peter A. Vanable
    • 1
  • Patricia Coury-Doniger
    • 2
  • Marguerite Urban
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Health and BehaviorSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA
  2. 2.School of MedicineUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations