AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 789–811 | Cite as

The HIV transmission gradient: relationship patterns of protection

  • David C. Bell
  • John S. Atkinson
  • Victoria Mosier
  • Micah Riley
  • Victoria L. Brown
Original Paper


We describe a gradient of potential HIV transmission from HIV-infected persons to their partners and thence to uninfected populations. The effect of this newly discovered transmission gradient is to limit the spread of HIV. We roughly estimate a 2% long-term transmission probability for sex and 14% for drug injection for two-step transmission. Then we test theories to account for this pattern on a network sample of 267 inner city drug users and nonusers. Although HIV positive persons engaged in a high level of risk with one another, they engaged in less risk with HIV negative partners, and these partners engaged in even lower levels of risk with other HIV negative persons. Analyses suggest that the primary motivation for sexual risk reduction is partner protection, while emotional closeness is the major barrier. Hypotheses accounting for risk in terms of self protection, social norms, gender power, and drug use were weakly supported or unsupported.


HIV/AIDS Social networks Risk reduction Power Social norms 



Work on this paper was supported in part by Grant DA08989 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, principal investigators Isaac D. Montoya and David C. Bell. The analyses for this paper were completed while the authors were employed by Affiliated Systems Corporation, a think tank in Houston, Texas. The authors would like to thank Sam Friedman, Seth Kalichman, Martina Morris, Jon Potterat, and anonymous reviewers for their insightful critiques of an earlier version of this paper, and Swati Sheth and Travis Cal for assistance in the preparation of this paper. Opinions expressed herein are solely those of the authors.


  1. Adam, B. D., Sears, A., & Schellenberg, E. G. (2000). Accounting for unsafe sex: Interviews with men who have sex with men. Journal of Sex Research, 37, 24–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afifi, W. (1999). Harming the ones we love: Relational attachment and perceived consequences as predictors of safe-sex behavior. Journal of Sex Research, 36, 198–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  5. Allard, R. (1990a). A mathematical model to describe the risk of infection from sharing injection equipment. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 3, 1010–1016.Google Scholar
  6. Allard, R. (1990b). A family of mathematical models to describe the risk of infection by a sexually transmitted agent. Epidemiology, 1, 30–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, J. E., Wilson, R., Doll, L., Jones, T. S., & Barker, P. (1999). Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: Data from a national survey. Family Planning Perspectives, 31, 24–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anglin, M. D., Hser, Y.-I., & Chou, C.-P. (1993). Reliability and validity of retrospective behavioral self-report by narcotics addicts. Evaluation Review, 17, 91–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Apostolopoulos, Y., Sonmez, S., & Yu, C. (2002). HIV-risk behaviours of American spring break vacationers: A case of situational disinhibition? International Journal of STD & AIDS, 13, 733–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bailey, N. T. J. (1994). Core-group dynamics and public health action. In E. H. Kaplan, & M. L. Brandeau (Eds.), Modeling the AIDS epidemic: Planning, policy, and prediction (pp. 29–52). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (1994). Social cognitive theory and exercise of control over HIV infection. In R. J. DiClemente, & J. L. Peterson (Eds.), Preventing AIDS: Theories and methods of behavioral interventions (pp. 25–59). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  12. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  13. Bechara, A., Dolan, S., & Hindes, A. (2002). Decision-making and addiction (PartII): Myopia for the future or hyper-sensitivity to reward? Neuropsychologia, 1690–1705.Google Scholar
  14. Becker, M. (1974). The health belief model and personal health behavior. Health Education Monographs, 2, 324–508.Google Scholar
  15. Behrman, J. R., Kohler, H.-P., & Watkins, S. C. (2002). Social networks and changes in contraceptive use over time: Evidence from a longitudinal study in rural Kenya. Demography, 39, 713–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bell, D. C. (2001). Evolution of parental caregiving. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5, 216–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bell, D. C., Montoya, I. D., & Atkinson, J. S. (2000). Partner concordance in reports of joint risk behaviors. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 25, 173–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bell, D. C., Montoya, I. D., Atkinson, J. S., & Yang, S.-J. (2002). Social networks and forecasting the spread of HIV infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 31, 218–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bell, D. C., & Trevino, R. A. (1999). Modeling HIV risk. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 22, 280–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Blower, S. (1991). Behaviour change and stabilization of seroprevalence levels in communities of injecting drug users: Correlation or causation? Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 4, 920–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Booth, R. E., & Watters, J. (1994). How effective are risk-reduction interventions targeting injecting drug users? AIDS, 8, 1515–1524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Booth, R. E., Watters, J. K., & Chitwood, D. D. (1993). HIV Risk-related sex behaviors among injection drug users, crack smokers, and injection drug users who smoke crack. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 1144–1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brettle, R. P. (1991). HIV and harm reduction for injection drug users. AIDS, 5, 125–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brewster, K., Cooksey, E. C., Guilkey, D. K., & Rindfuss, R. R. (1998). The changing impact of religion on the sexual and contraceptive behavior of adolescent women in the United States. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 493–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Broadhead, R. S., Heckathorn, D. D., Grund, J.-P. C., Stern, L. S., & Anthony, D. L. (1995). Drug users versus outreach workers in combating AIDS: Preliminary results of a peer-driven intervention. Journal of Drug Issues, 25, 531–564.Google Scholar
  26. Brody, S. (1997). Sex at risk: Lifetime number of partners, frequency of intercourse, and the low AIDS risk of vaginal intercourse. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  27. Brown, V. L., Trevino, R. A., Richard, A. J., Brown, S. H., Bell, D. C., & Montoya, I. D. (2004). An analysis of peer influence and peer selection on HIV risk behaviors. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 9, 137–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Buysse, A., & Ickes, W. (1999). Communications patterns in laboratory discussions of safer sex between dating versus nondating partners. The Journal of Sex Research, 36, 121–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carovano, K. (1991). More than mothers and whores: Redefining the AIDS prevention needs of women. International journal of health services, 21, 131–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carroll, J. L., Volk, K. D., & Hyde, J. S. (1985). Differences between males and females in motives for engaging in sexual intercourse. Archives of sexual behavior, 14, 131–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Catania, J., Kegeles, S., & Coates, T. (1990). Toward an understanding of risk behavior: An AIDS risk reduction model. Health Education Quarterly, 17, 53–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Celentano, D. D., Munoz, A., Cohn, S., & Vlahov, D. (2001). Dynamics of behavioral risk factors for HIV/AIDS: A 6-year prospective study of injection drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 61, 315–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. 15, [whole issue].Google Scholar
  34. Chitwood, D. D., & Comerford, M. (1990). Drugs, sex and AIDS risk. American Behavioral Scientist, 33, 465–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ciccarone, D. H., Kanouse, D. E., Collins, R. L., Miu, A., Chan, J. L., Morton, S. C., & Stall, R. (2003). Sex without disclosure of positive HIV serostatus in a US probability sample of persons receiving medical care for HIV infection. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 949–954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cleary, P. D., Van Devanter, N., Rogers, T. F., Singer, E., Shipton-Levy, R., Steilen, M., Stuart, A., Avorn, J., & Pindyck, J. (1991). Behavior changes after notification of HIV infection. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 1586–1590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cochran, S. D. (1989). Women and HIV infection: Issues in prevention, behavior change. In V. M. Mays, G. W. Albee, & S. F. Schneider (Eds.), Primary prevention of AIDS: Psychological approaches (pp. 309–327). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  38. Cusick, L. (1998). Non-use of condoms by prostitute women. AIDS Care, 10, 133–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cusick, L., & Rhodes, T. (2000). Sustaining sexual safety in relationships: HIV positive people and their sexual partners. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 2, 473–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Davidovich, U., de Wit, J. B., & Stroebe, W. (2000). Assessing sexual risk behaviour of young gay men in primary relationships: The incorporation of negotiated safety and negotiated safety compliance. AIDS, 14, 701–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Day, S. (1990). Prostitute women and the ideology of work in London. In D. Feldman (Ed.), AIDS and Culture. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  42. De Bro, S. C., Campbell, S. M., & Peplau, L. A. (1994). Influencing a partner to use a condom. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 165–182.Google Scholar
  43. de Graaf, R., van Zessen, G., Vanwesenbeeck, I., Straver, C., & Visser, J. (1997). Condom use by Dutch men with commercial heterosexual contacts: Determinants and considerations. AIDS Education and Prevention, 9, 411–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. De Rosa, C. J., & Marks, G. (1998). Preventive counseling of HIV-positive men and self-disclosure of serostatus to sex partners: New opportunities for prevention. Health Psychology, 17, 224–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Derlaga, V., Winstead, B. A., Greene, K., Serovich, J., & Elwood, W. N. (2002). Perceived HIV-related stigma and HIV disclosures to relationship partners after finding out about the seropositive diagnosis. Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 415–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Des Jarlais, D. C., Friedman, S. R., Perlis, T., Chapman, T. F., Sotheran, J. L., Paone, D., Monterroso, E., & Neaigus, A. (1999). Risk behavior and HIV infection among new drug injectors in the era of AIDS in New York City. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 20, 67–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Des Jarlais, D. C., Marmor, M., Friedmann, P., Titus, S., Aviles, E., Derren, S., Torian, L., Glebats, D., Murrill, C., Monterroso, E., & Friedman, S. R. (2000). HIV incidence in injecting drug users in New York City: Evidence for a declining epidemic. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 352–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. DiClemente, R. J., & Peterson, J. L. (Eds.). (1994). Preventing AIDS Theories and Methods of Behavior Interventions. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  49. Dingle, D., & Oei, T. (1997). Is alcohol a cofactor of HIV/AIDS? Evidence from immunological and behavioral studies. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 56–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dowling-Guyer, S., Johnson, M. E., Fisher, D. G., Needle, R., Watters, J., Andersen, M., Williams, M., Kotranski, L., Booth, R., Rhodes, F., Weatherby, N., Estrada, A. L., Fleming, D., Deren, S., & Tortu, S. (1994). Reliability of drug users’ self-reported HIV risk behaviors and validity of self-reported recent drug use. Assessment, 1, 383–392.Google Scholar
  51. El-Bassel, N., Cooper, D. K., Chen, D. R., & Schilling, R. F. (1998). Personal social networks and HIV status among women on methadone. AIDS Care, 10, 735–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Emerson, R. (1962). Power–dependence relations. American Sociological Review, 27, 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Epstein, J., Dusenbery, I., Botvin, G., & Diaz, T. (1994). Determinants of intentions of junior high school students to become sexually active and use condoms: Implications for reduction and prevention of AIDS risk. Psychological Reports, 75, 1043–1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Etzioni, A. (2000). Social norms: Internalization, persuasion, and history. Law & Society Review, 34, 157–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV. (1992). Comparison of female to male and male to female transmission of HIV in 563 stable couples. British Medical Journal, 304, 809–813.Google Scholar
  56. Falck, R., Siegal, H. A., Forney, M. A., Wang, J., & Carlson, R. G. (1992). The validity of injection drug users self-reported use of opiates and cocaine. Journal of Drug Issues, 22, 823–832.Google Scholar
  57. Fishbein, M. (1980). A theory of reasoned action: Applications and implications. In H. E. Howe, M. M. Page (Eds.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1979 (pp. 65–116). Lincoln: University of Nebraska.Google Scholar
  58. Fishbein, M. (1990). AIDS and behavior change: An analysis based on the theory of reasoned action. Revista Interamericana de Psicología, 24, 37–56.Google Scholar
  59. Fishbein, M., & Middlestadt, S. (1989). Using the theory of reasoned action as a framework for understanding and changing AIDS-related behaviors. In V. M. Mays, G. W. Albee, & S. F. Schneider (Eds.), Primary prevention of AIDS: Psychology approaches (pp. 93–110). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  60. Fisher, J. D., & Misovich, S. J. (1990). Social influences and AIDS-preventative behavior. In J. Edwards, R. S. Tinsdale, L. Heath, & E. Posavac (Eds.), Applying social influence processes in preventing social problems (pp. 39–70). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  61. Fisher, W. A., & Fisher, J. D. (1993). A general social psychological model for changing AIDS risk behavior. In J. B. Pryor, G. D. Reeder (Eds.), The social psychology of HIV infection (pp. 127–153). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher.Google Scholar
  62. Flaskerund, J. H., & Nyamathi, A. M. (1990). Effects of an AIDS education program on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of low income Black and Latina women. Journal of Community Health, 15, 343–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ford, K., & Wirawan, D. N. (2002). Social influence, AIDS/STD knowledge, and condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Bali. AIDS Education and Prevention, 14, 496–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Fortenberry, J. D., Tu, W., Harezlak, J., Katz, B. P., & Orr, D. P. (2002). Condom use as a function of time in new and established adolescent sexual relationships. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 211–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Freese, T. E., Miotto, K., & Rebeack, C. J. (2002). The effects and consequences of selected club drugs. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 23, 151–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Friedman, S. R., Curtis, R., Neaigus, A., Jose, B., & DesJarlais, D. C. (1999). Social networks, drug injectors’ lives, and HIV/AIDS. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  67. Friedman, S. R., Jose, B., Neaigus, A., Goldstein, M., Curtis, R., Ildefonso, G., Mota, P., & DesJarlais, D. C. (1994). Consistent condom use in relationships between seropositive injecting drug users and sex partners who do not inject drugs. AIDS, 8, 357–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Friedman, S. R., Kottiri, B. J., Neaigus, A., Curtis, R., Vermund, S. H., & Des Jarlais, D. C. (2000). Network-related mechanisms may help explain long-term HIV-1 seroprevalence levels that remain high but do not approach population-group saturation. American Journal of Epidemiology, 152, 913–922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Fullilove, M. T., Fullilove, R. E., Haynes, K., & Gross, S. (1990). Black women and AIDS prevention: A view towards understanding the gender rules. Journal of Sex Research, 29, 275–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Giami, A., & Schiltz, M.-A. (1996). Representations of sexuality and relations between partners: Sex research in France in the era of AIDS. Annual review of sex research, 7, 125–157.Google Scholar
  71. Gillmore, M. R., Stielstra, S., Huang, B., Baker, S. A., Beadnell, B., & Morrison, D. M. (2003). Heterosexually active men’s beliefs about methods for preventing sexually transmitted diseases. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 35, 536–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Goldstein, P., & Paul, J. (1985). The drugs/violence Nexus: A tripartite conceptual framework. Journal of Drug Issues, 143–174.Google Scholar
  73. Harvey, S. M., Beckman, L. J., Browner, C. H., & Sherman, C. A. (2002a). Relationship power, decision making, and sexual relations: An exploratory study with couples of Mexican origin. Journal of Sex Research, 39, 284–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Harvey, S. M., Bird, S. T., Galavotti, C., Duncan, E. A., & Greenberg, D. (2002b). Relationship power, sexual decision making, and condom use among women at risk for HIV/STDS. Women Health, 36, 69–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hays, R. B., Chauncey, S., & Tobey, L. A. (1990). The social support networks of gay men with AIDS. Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 374–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hays, R. B., Paul, J., Ekstrand, M., Kegeles, S. M., Stall, R., & Coates, T. J. (1997). Actual versus perceived HIV status, sexual behaviors and predictors of unprotected sex among young gay and bisexual men who identify as HIV-negative. AIDS, 11, 1495–1502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Heckathorn, D. D. (1997). Respondent-driven sampling: A new approach to the study of hidden populations. Social Problems, 44, 174–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hill, C. A. (2002). Gender, relationship stage, and sexual behavior: The importance of partner emotional investment within specific situations. Journal of sex research, 39, 228–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hillier, L., Harrison, L., & Warr, D. (1998). When you carry condoms all the boys think you want it: Negotiating competing discourses about safe sex. Journal of Adolescence, 21, 15–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hoxworth, T., Spencer, N. E., Peterman, T. A., Craig, T., Johnson, S., & Maher, J. E. (2003). Changes in partnership and HIV risk behaviors after partner notification. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 30, 83–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hughes, R. A. (2001). Assessing the influence of need to inject and drug withdrawal on drug injectors’ perceptions of HIV risk behavior. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 33, 185–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hyman, J. M., & Stanley, E. A. (1994). A risk-based heterosexual model for the AIDS epidemic with biased sexual partner selection. In E. H. Kaplan, & M. L. Brandeau (Eds.), Modeling the AIDS epidemic: Planning, policy, and prediction (pp. 331–363). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  83. Hynie, M., Lydon, J. E., Cote, S., & Wiener, S. (1998). Relational sexual scripts and women’s condom use: The importance of internalized norms. Journal of sex research, 35, 370–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jewkes, R., Levin, J., & Penn-Kekana, L. (2003). Gender inequalities, intimate partner violence and HIV preventive practices: Findings of a South African cross-sectional study. Social Science and Medicine, 56, 125–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kalichman, S. C., Heckman, T., & Kelly, J. A. (1996). Sensation seeking as an explanation for the association between substance use and HIV-related risky sexual behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 141–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kamb, M. L., Fishbein, M., Douglas, J. M., Rhodes, F., Rogers, J., Bolan, G., Zenilman, J., Hoxworth, T., Malotte, K., Iatesta, M., Kent, C., Lentz, A., Graziano, S., Byers, R. H., Peterman, T. A., & the Project RESPECT Study Group. (1998). Efficacy of risk-reduction counseling to prevent human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted diseases. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280, 1161–1167.Google Scholar
  87. Kamenga, M., Ryder, R., Jingu, M., Mbuyi, N., Mbu, L., Behets, F., Brown, C., & Heyward, W. (1991). Evidence of marked sexual behavior change associated with low HIV-1 seroconversion in 149 married couples with discordant HIV-1 serostatus: Experience at an HIV counseling center in Zaire. AIDS, 5, 61–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kane, S. (1990). AIDS, addiction and condom use: Sources of sexual risk for heterosexual women. Journal of Sex Research, 27, 427–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Keller, S., & Brown, J. (2002). Media interventions to promote responsible sexual behavior. Journal of Sex Research, 39, 67–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kippax, S., Crawford, J., Davis, M., Rodden, P., & Dowsett, G. (1993). Sustaining safe sex: a longitudinal study of a sample of homosexual men. AIDS, 7, 257–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kippax, S., Noble, J., Prestage, G., Crawford, J. M., Campbell, D., Baxter, D., & Cooper, D. (1997). Sexual negotiation in the AIDS era: Negotiated safety revisited. AIDS, 11, 191–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Klovdahl, A. S. (1989). Urban social networks: Some methodological problems and possibilities. In M. Kochen (Ed.), The small world (pp. 176–210). Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.Google Scholar
  93. Koopman, J. S., Jacquez, J. A., Welch, G. W., Simon, C. P., Foxman, B., Pollock, S. M., Barth-Jones, D., Adams, A. L., & Lange, K. (1997). The role of early HIV infection in the spread of HIV through populations. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 14, 249–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kordoutis, P. S., Loumakou, M., & Sarafidou, J. O. (2000). Heterosexual relationship characteristics, condom use and safe sex practices. AIDS care, 12, 767–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kowalewski, M., Henson, K., & Longshore, D. (1997). Rethinking perceived risk and health behavior: A critical review of HIV prevention research. Health Education and Behavior, 24, 313–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kunce, L. J., & Shaver, P. R. (1994). An attachment-theoretical approach to caregiving in romantic relationships. In K. Bartholomew, & D. Perlman (Eds.), Attachment processes in adulthood (pp. 205–237). Philadelphia: Kingsley.Google Scholar
  97. LaBrie, J. W., Schiffman, J., & Earleywine, M. (2002). Expectancies specific to condom use mediate the alcohol and sexual risk relationship. The Journal of Sex Research, 39, 145–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lansky, A., Thomas, J., & Earp, J. (1998). Partner-specific sexual behaviors among persons with both main and other partners. Family Planning Perspectives, 30, 93–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Latkin, C. A., Forman, V., Knowlton, A., & Sherman, S. (2003). Norms, social networks, and HIV-related risk behaviors among urban disadvantaged drug users. Social Science and Medicine, 56, 465–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  101. Leigh, B. C., & Stall, R. (1993). Substance use and risky sexual behavior for exposure to HIV: Issues in methodology, interpretation and prevention. American Psychologist, 18, 1035–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Levy, P. S., & Lemeshow, S. (1991). Sampling of populations: Methods and applications. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  103. Liebman, J., Mulia, N., & McIlvaine, D. (1992). Risk behavior for HIV infection of intravenous drug users and their sexual partners recruited from street settings in Philadelphia. Journal of Drug Issues, 22, 867–884.Google Scholar
  104. Liebow, E., McGrady, G., Branch, K., Vera, M., Klovdahl, A., Lovely, R., Mueller, C., & Mann, E. (1995). Eliciting social network data and ecological model-building: Focus on choice of name generators and administration of random-walk study procedures. Social Networks, 17, 257–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Longshore, D., Anglin, M. D., Annon, K., & Hsieh, S.-C. (1993). Trends in self-reported HIV risk behavior: injection drug users in Los Angeles. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 6, 82–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Macrae, C. N., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2000). Social cognition: Thinking categorically about others. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 93–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Maddux, J., & Rogers, R. (1983). Protection motivation and self efficacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Journal of Experienced Social Psychology, 19, 469–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Marks, G., Burris, S., & Peterman, T. A. (1999). Reducing sexual transmission of HIV from those who know they are infected: The need for personal and collective responsibility. AIDS, 13, 297–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mays, V. M., & Cochran, S. D. (1988). Interpretation of AIDS risk and risk reduction activities by Black and Hispanic women. American psychologist, 43, 949–957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. McAdams, R. (1997). The origin, development, and regulations of norms. Michigan Law Review, 96, 338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. McCoy, C. B., Metch, L. R., Comerford, M., Zhao, W., Coltes, A. J., & Messiah, S. E. (2005). Trends of HIV risk behaviors in a cohort of injecting drug users and their sex partners in Miami, Florida, 1988–1998. AIDS & Behavior, 9, 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Misovich, S., Fisher, J., & Fisher, W. (1997). Close relationships and elevated HIV risk behavior: Evidence and possible psychological processes. Review of general psychology, 1, 72–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Neaigus, A., Friedman, S. R., Curtis, R., Des Jarlais, D. C., Furst, R. T., Jose, B., Mota, P., Stepherson, B., Sufian, M., Ward, T., & Wright, J. W. (1994). The relevance of drug injectors’ social and risk networks for understanding and preventing HIV infection. Social Science in Medicine, 38, 67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Needle, R., Fisher, D. G., Weatherby, N. L., Chitwood, D., Brown, B. S., Cesari, H., Booth, R., Williams, M. L., Watters, J., Anderson, M., & Braunstein, M. (1995). The reliability of self-reported HIV risk behaviors of drug users. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 9, 242–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. O’Leary, A. (2000). Women at risk for HIV from a primary partner: Balancing risk and intimacy. Annual Review of Sex Research, 11, 191–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Orbell, S., & Sheeran, P. (1998). Inclined abstainers: A problem for predicting health related behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology, 37.Google Scholar
  117. Padian, N., Marquis, L., Francis, D. P., Anderson, R. E., Rutherford, G. W., O’Malley, P. M., & Winkelstein, W., Jr. (1987). Male-to-female transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Journal of the American Medical Association, 258, 788–790.Google Scholar
  118. Palloni, A., & Glicklich, M. (1991). Review of approaches to modelling the demographic impact of the AIDS epidemic. In U. Nations (Ed.), The AIDS epidemic and its demographic consequences (pp. 20–50). New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  119. Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Paulus, M. P., Hozack, N., Frank, L., Brown, G. G., & Schuckit, M. A. (2003). Decision making by methamphetamine-dependent subjects is associated with error-rate-independent decrease in prefrontal and parietal activation. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 65–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Poppen, P. J., & Reisen, C. A. (1997). Perception of risk and sexual self-protective behavior: A methodological critique. AIDS Education and Prevention, 9, 373–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Prendergast, M. L., Urada, D., & Podus, D. (2001). Meta-analysis of HIV risk-reduction interventions within drug abuse treatment programs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 389–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Prochaska, J., & DiClemente, C. (1986). Toward a comprehensive model of change. In W. Miller, & N. Heather (Eds.), Treating addictive behavior (pp. 3–27). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  124. Prochaska, J., DiClemente, C., & Norcross, J. (1992). In search of how people change. American Psychology, 47, 1102–1114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Pulerwitz, J., Amaro, H., De Jong, W., Gortmaker, S., & Rudd, R. (2002). Relationship power, condom use and HIV risk among women in the USA. AIDS Care, 14, 789–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Remien, R., Carballo-Diequez, A., & Wagner, G. (1995). Intimacy and sexual risk behaviour in sero-discordant male couples. AIDS Care, 7, 429–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rosenstock, I. M., Strecher, V. J., & Becker, M. H. (1994). The health belief model and HIV risk behavior change. In R. J. DiClemente (Ed.), Preventing AIDS: Theories and methods of behavioral interventions. New York, NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  128. Sacco, W. P., Rickman, R. L., Thompson, K., Levine, B., & Reed, D. L. (1993). Gender differences in AIDS-relevant condom attitudes and condom use. AIDS Education and Prevention, 5, 311–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Saltzman, S. P., Stoddard, A. M., McCusker, J., Moon, M. W., & Mayer, K. H. (1987). Reliability of self-reported sexual behavior risk factors for HIV infection in homosexual men. Public Health Reports, 102, 692–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Särndal, C.-E., Swensson, B., & Wretman, J. (1992). Model assisted survey sampling. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  131. Semple, S. J., Patterson, T. L., & Grant, I. (2000). The sexual negotiation behavior of HIV-positive gay and bisexual men. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 68, 934–937.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Serwadda, D., Gray, R. H., Wawer, M. J., Stallings, R. Y., Sewankambo, N. K., Konde-Lule, J. K., Lainjo, B., & Kelly, R. (1995). The social dynamics of HIV transmission as reflected through discordant couples in rural Uganda. AIDS, 9, 745–750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Sheeran, P., Abraham, C., & Orbell, S. (1999). Psychosocial correlates of heterosexual condom use: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 90–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sprecher, S. (1989). Premarital sexual standards for different categories of individuals. Journal of sex research, 35, 232–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Stanton, B., Li, X., Pack, R., Cottrell, L., Harris, C., & Burns, J. M. (2002). Longitudinal influence of perceptions of peer and parental factors on African American adolescent risk involvement. Journal of Urban Health, 79, 536–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Stein, Z. (1990). HIV prevention: The need for methods women can use. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 460–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Stimson, G. V. (1995). AIDS and injecting drug use in the United Kingdom, 1987–1993: The policy response and the prevention of the epidemic. Social Science and Medicine, 41, 699–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Temple, M., & Leigh, B. C. (1992). Alcohol consumption and unsafe sexual behavior in discrete events. The Journal of Sex Research, 29, 207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Van Der Straten, A., King, R., Grinstead, O., Serufilira, A., & Allen, S. (1995). Couple communication, sexual coercion and HIV risk reduction in Kigali, Rwanda. AIDS, 9, 935–944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Watters, J. K., & Biernacki, P. (1989). Targeted sampling: Options for the study of hidden and elusive populations. Social Problems, 36, 416–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Weeks, M. R., Schensul, J. J., Williams, S. S., Singer, M., & Grier, M. (1995). AIDS prevention for African American and Latina women: Building culturally and gender appropriate interventions. AIDS Education and Prevention, 7, 251–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Wingood, G. W., & DiClemente, R. J. (1997). The effects of an abusive primary partner on the condom use and sexual negotiation practices of African–American women. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1016–1018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wingood, G. W., & DiClemente, R. J. (1998). Partner influences and gender-related factors associated with noncondom use among young adult African American women. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26, 29–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wolitski, R. J., Bailey, C. J., O’Leary, A., Gomez, C. A., Parsons, J. T., & Seropositive Urban Men’s Study (SUMS). (2003). Self-perceived responsibility of HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men for preventing HIV transmission. AIDS and Behavior, 7, 363–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Zaleski, E. H., & Schiaffino, K. M. (2000). Religiosity and sexual risk-taking behavior during the transition to college.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • David C. Bell
    • 1
  • John S. Atkinson
    • 2
  • Victoria Mosier
    • 3
  • Micah Riley
    • 4
  • Victoria L. Brown
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of SociologyIndiana University Purdue University IndianapolisIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.Center for Health Promotion and Prevention ResearchUniversity of Texas School of Public HealthHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Department of ResearchDePelchin Children’s CenterHoustonUSA
  4. 4.Veterans AffairsHoustonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Behavioral ScienceUniversity of Texas—M. D. Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations