AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 10, Supplement 1, pp 105–111 | Cite as

Depression and CD4 Cell Count Among Persons with HIV Infection in Uganda

  • Frank M. Kaharuza
  • Rebecca Bunnell
  • Susan Moss
  • David W. Purcell
  • Winnie Bikaako-Kajura
  • Nafuna Wamai
  • Robert Downing
  • Peter Solberg
  • Alex Coutinho
  • Jonathan Mermin
Original Paper

Abstract

Despite the importance of mental illness and the high prevalence of HIV in Africa, few studies have documented depressive symptoms among HIV-infected persons in Africa. We assessed factors associated with depression among HIV-infected adults undergoing anti-retroviral eligibility screening in Eastern Uganda. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Univariate and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify socio-demographic characteristics and disease-related factors associated with depression. Among 1017 HIV-infected participants assessed for depression, 47% (476/1017) reported depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 23). Adjusting for age, gender, education, and source of income, patients with CD4 counts <50 cells/μl were more likely to be depressed (odds ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval, 1.39–3.93, P = 0.001). Women, participants >50 years, and those without an income source were more likely to be depressed. Depression was common among HIV-infected persons in rural Uganda and was associated with low CD4 cell counts. Appropriate screening and treatment for depression should be considered for comprehensive HIV care.

Keywords

Depression HIV/AIDS CD4 cell count CES-D depression scale Africa Uganda 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the interviewers and staff of TASO and of CDC-Uganda, especially Anne Stangl, Anna Awor, and Sylvia Nakayiwa for their input and dedication. We are greatly indebted to the study participants for their support.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank M. Kaharuza
    • 1
  • Rebecca Bunnell
    • 1
    • 5
  • Susan Moss
    • 1
  • David W. Purcell
    • 2
  • Winnie Bikaako-Kajura
    • 1
  • Nafuna Wamai
    • 1
  • Robert Downing
    • 1
  • Peter Solberg
    • 3
  • Alex Coutinho
    • 4
  • Jonathan Mermin
    • 1
  1. 1.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)EntebbeUganda
  2. 2.Global AIDS Program, National Center for HIV, STD and TB PreventionCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Global HealthUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.The AIDS Support OrganizationKampalaUganda
  5. 5.CDC-Uganda, Uganda Virus Research InstituteEntebbeUganda

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