AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 10, Issue 5, pp 587–598

Sexual Compulsivity in a Sample of HIV-Positive Methamphetamine-using Gay and Bisexual Men

  • Shirley J. Semple
  • Jim Zians
  • Igor Grant
  • Thomas L. Patterson
Original Paper

Abstract

Little research has been done on the relationship between sexual compulsivity and the sexual risk behaviors of methamphetamine (meth) users. This exploratory study sought to identify correlates of sexual compulsivity in a sample of 217 HIV-positive meth-using gay and bisexual men. Participants reported a mean score of 2.4 on the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS) (SD=.76, range 1–4). Sexual compulsivity was positively associated with high-risk sexual behaviors (e.g., number of unprotected sex acts with anonymous partners, total number of HIV-negative or unknown serostatus partners). In multivariate analyses, higher scores on sexual compulsivity were associated with older age, meth use before or during sex, visits to sex clubs and street corners to find sex partners, lower self-efficacy for condom use, lower levels of self-esteem, higher scores on a measure of disinhibition, and a greater number of HIV-negative or unknown serostatus partners. The results suggest that more attention should be focused on sexual compulsivity and its correlates to determine how they may contribute to resistance to sexual behavior change in this high-risk population.

Keywords

Sexual compulsivity Methamphetamine Gay and bisexual men HIV prevention 

References

  1. Acton, G. S. (2003). Measurement of impulsivity in a hierarchical model of personality traits: Implications for substance use. Substance Use and Misuse, 38, 67–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bancroft, J., & Vukadinovic, Z. (2004). Sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, or what? Toward a theoretical model. Journal of Sex Research, 41, 225–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Aspects. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and Emotional Disorder. New York: Hoeber.Google Scholar
  5. Benotsch, E. G., Kalichman, S. C., & Kelly, J. A. (1999). Sexual compulsivity and substance use in HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men: Prevalence and predictors of high risk behaviors. Addictive Behaviors, 24, 857–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benotsch, E. G., Kalichman, S. C., & Pinkerton, S. D. (2001). Sexual compulsivity in HIV-positive men and women: Prevalence, predictors, and consequences of high-risk behaviors. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, 8, 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Binson, D., Woods, W., Pollack, L., Paul, J., Stall, R., & Catania, J. (2001). Differential HIV risk in bathhouses and public cruising areas. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1482–1486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bucholz, K. K., Cadoret, R., Cloninger, R. D., Dinwiddie, S. H., Hesselbrock, V. M., Nurnberger, J. I., et al. (1994). A new semi-structured psychiatric interview for use in genetic linkage studies. A report on the reliability of the SSAGA. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55, 149–158.Google Scholar
  9. Bucholz, K. K., Hesselbrock, V. M., Shayka, J. J., Nurnberger, J. I., Schuckit, M. A., Schmidt, I., et al. (1995). Reliability of individual diagnostic criterion items for psychoactive substance dependence and the impact on diagnosis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56, 500–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  11. Cooper, A., Scherer, C. R., Boies, S., & Gordon, B. (1999). Sexuality on the internet: From sexual exploration to pathological expression. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30, 154–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dodge, B., Reece, M., Cole, S. L., & Standfort, T. G. M. (2004). Sexual compulsivity among heterosexual college students. Journal of Sex Research, 41, 343–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gold, S. N., & Heffner, C. L. (1998). Sexual addiction: Many conceptions, minimal data. Clinical Psychology Review, 18, 367–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Golden, M. R., Brewer, D. D., Kurth, A., Holmes, K. K., & Handsfield, H. H. (2004). United States: Importance of sex partner HIV status in HIV risk assessment among men who have sex with men. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 36, 734–742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gruenewald, T. L., Kemeny, M. E., Aziz, N., & Fahey, J. L. (2004). Acute threat to the social self: shame, social self-esteem, and cortisol activity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 915–924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Halkitis, P. N., Fischgrund, B. N., & Parsons, J. T. (2005). Explanations for methamphetamine use among gay and bisexual men in New York City. Substance Use and Misuse, 40, 1331–1345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Halkitis, P. N., Shrem, M. T., & Martin, F. W. (2005). Sexual behavior patterns of methamphetamine-using gay and bisexual men. Substance Use and Misuse, 40, 703–719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hyde, J. S., & DeLamater, J. D. (2004). Understanding human sexuality. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.Google Scholar
  19. Kalichman, S. C., & Cain, D. (2004). The relationship between indicators of sexual compulsivity and high risk sexual practices among men and women receiving services from a sexually transmitted infection clinic. Journal of Sex Research, 41, 235–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kalichman, S. C., Greenberg, J., & Abel, G. G. (1997). HIV-seropositive men who engage in high risk sexual behavior: Psychological characteristics and implications for prevention. AIDS Care, 9, 441–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kalichman, S. C., Johnson, J. R., Adair, V., Rompa, D., Multhauf, K., & Kelly, J. A. (1994). Sexual sensation seeking: Scale development and predicting AIDS-risk behavior among homosexually active men. Journal of Personality Assessment, 62, 385–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kalichman, S. C., & Rompa, D. (1995). Sexual sensation seeking and sexual compulsivity scales: Reliability, validity, and predicting HIV risk behavior. Journal of Personality Assessment, 65, 586–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kalichman, S. C., & Rompa, D. (2001). The sexual compulsivity scale: Further development and use with HIV-positive persons. Journal of Personality Assessment, 76, 379–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kurtz, S. P. (2005). Post-circuit blues: motivations and consequences of crystal meth use among gay men in Miami. AIDS and Behavior, 9, 63–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nugent, W. R., & Thomas, J. W. (1993). Validation of a clinical measure of self-esteem. Research on Social Work Practice, 3, 191–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Parsons, J. T., Bimbi, D., & Halkitis, P. N. (2001). Sexual compulsivity among gay/bisexual male escorts who advertise on the internet. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, 8, 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Parsons, J. T. and Halkitis, P. N. (2002). Sexual and drug-using practices of HIV-positive men who frequent public and commercial sex environments. AIDS Care, 14, 815–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Reback, C. J. (1997). The social construction of a gay drug: Methamphetamine use among gay and bisexual males in Los Angeles. Executive Summary. City of Los Angeles: AIDS Coordinator.Google Scholar
  29. Schilder, A. J., Lampinen, T. M., Miller, M. L., & Hogg, R. S. (2005). Crystal methamphetamine and ecstasy differ in relation to unsafe sex among young gay men. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96, 340–343.Google Scholar
  30. Semple, S. J., Grant, I., Zians, J., & Patterson, T. L. (2005). HIV-positive methamphetamine users: Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with sexual venues. Unpublished manuscript, University of California, San Diego.Google Scholar
  31. Semple, S. J., Patterson, T. L., & Grant, I. (2002). Motivations associated with methamphetamine use among HIV+ men who have sex with men. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 22, 149–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Semple, S. J., Patterson, T. L., & Grant, I. (2004). The context of sexual risk behavior among heterosexual methamphetamine users. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 807–810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Temoshok, L., & Nannis, E. D. (1992). Tri-Service Biopsychosocial Study Protocol. The Rockville, MD: Military Medical Consortium for Applied Retroviral Research.Google Scholar
  34. van Empelen, P., Kok, G., van Kesteren, N. M., van den Borne, B., Bos, A. E., & Schaalma, H. P. (2003). Effective methods to change sex-risk among drug users: a review of psychological interventions. Social Science and Medicine, 57, 1593–1608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Williams, M. (2005). Medication treatment for sexual compulsivity. Accessed from http://www.brainphysics.com/paraphilia.php on October 16, 2005.Google Scholar
  36. Zuckerman, M. (1971). Dimensions of sensation seeking. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 36, 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shirley J. Semple
    • 1
  • Jim Zians
    • 1
  • Igor Grant
    • 1
  • Thomas L. Patterson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations