AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 137–144 | Cite as

Differences in HIV Risk Behaviors by Gender in a Sample of Tanzanian Injection Drug Users

  • Mark L. Williams
  • Sheryl A. McCurdy
  • John S. Atkinson
  • Gad P. Kilonzo
  • M. T. Leshabari
  • Michael W. Ross
Original Paper


This study investigated differences in drug use and sexual behaviors among from 237 male and 123 female heroin users in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Multivariate models of risk of needle sharing were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Men were significantly older, more likely to inject only white heroin, share needles, and give or lend used needles to other injectors. Women were more likely to be living on the streets, have injected brown heroin, have had sex, have had a higher number of sex partners, and have used a condom with the most recent sex partner. Being male and earning less than US $46 in the past month were significant predictors of increased risk of needle sharing. Despite differences in sociodemographic, drug use, and sexual behaviors by gender, both male and female injectors in Dar es Salaam exhibit elevated risk of HIV infection associated with drug use.


Sub-Saharan Africa Tanzania Injection drug users Needle sharing Sex risks 



This research is based on an ongoing collaboration between researchers at the University of Texas-Health Science Center at Houston and Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences and is supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, USA. The opinions expressed in the manuscript are solely those of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark L. Williams
    • 2
  • Sheryl A. McCurdy
    • 1
  • John S. Atkinson
    • 1
  • Gad P. Kilonzo
    • 3
  • M. T. Leshabari
    • 3
  • Michael W. Ross
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Public HealthUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at HoustonHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research, School of Public HealthUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at HoustonHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Muhimbili University College of Health SciencesUniversity of Dar es SalaamDar es SalaamTanzania

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