The Impact of Exposure to Transphobia on HIV Risk Behavior in a Sample of Transgendered Women of Color in San Francisco
- 966 Downloads
This study examined the relationship between exposure to transphobia—societal discrimination and stigma of individuals who do not conform to traditional notions of gender—and risk for engaging in unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) among 327 transgendered women of color. Overall, 24% of participants had engaged in URAI at least once in the past 30 days. Individuals who self-identified as pre-operative transsexual/transgendered women were significantly more likely than self-identified females to have engaged in URAI. Although exposure to transphobia was not independently related to URAI, an interaction between age and experiencing discrimination was observed. Among transgendered women 18–25 years old, those reporting higher levels of exposure to transphobia had a 3.2 times higher risk for engaging in URAI compared to those reporting lower levels. Findings from this study corroborate the importance of exposure to transphobia on HIV risk, particularly among transgendered young adults.
KEY WORDS:Transgendered HIV risk unprotected sex transphobia discrimination.
The authors would like to thank everyone who assisted in the research study including the study participants, community collaborators, outreach workers, health educators, and health professionals who provide services to transgendered women. In addition, the authors would like to thank Tor Neilands for his statistical expertise. This research was funded by the National Institutes on Drug Abuse (Grant R01 DA11589) to Tooru Nemoto, Principal Investigator.
- Blommers, P. J., and Forsyth, R. A. (1983). Elementary statistical methods in psychology and education (Second ed.), Maryland: University Press of America.Google Scholar
- Clements, K., Willy, W., Kitano, K., and Marx, R. (1999). HIV prevention and health service needs of the transgender community in San Francisco. International Journal of Transgenderism, 3(1+2).Google Scholar
- Dean, L., Meyer, I. H., Robinson, K., Sell, R. L., Sember, R., Silenzio, V. M. B., Bowen, D., Bradford, J., Rothblum, E., Scout, M., White, J., Dunn, P., Lawrence, A., Wolfe, D., and Xavier, J. (2000). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health: Findings and concerns. Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 4(3), 102–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Green, J. (1994). Investigation into discrimination against transgendered people. San Francisco: San Francisco Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
- Israel, G. E., and Tarver, D. E. (1997). Transgender care : recommended guidelines, practical information, and personal accounts. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
- Kellogg, T. A., Clements-Nolle, K., Dilley, J., Katz, M. H., and McFarland, W. (2001). Incidence of human immunodeficiency virus among male-to-female transgendered persons in San Francisco. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 28(4), 380–384.Google Scholar
- Meyer III, W., Bockting, W. O., Cohen-Kettenis, P., Coleman, E., DiCeglie, D., Devor, H., Gooren, L., Hage, J. J., Kirk, S., Kuiper, B., Laub, D., Lawrence, A., Menard, Y., Patton, J., Schaefer, L., Webb, A., and Wheeler, C. C. (2001). The standards of care for gender identity disorders–Sixth Version. International Journal of Transgenderism, 5(1).Google Scholar
- Nemoto, T. (1988). Social support and norms toward mobilizing: Social support among Japanese American elderly. Unpublished PhD dissertation, New York University.Google Scholar
- Nemoto, T., Operario, D., and Keatley, J. (in press). Health and social services for male-to-female transgenders of color in San Francisco. International Journal of Transgenderism.Google Scholar
- Nemoto, T., Operario, D., Sevelius, J., Keatley, J., Hung, L., and Sugano, E. (2004c). Role of transphobia on psychological vulnerability among male-to-female transgenders. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
- Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Stevens, P. E., and Morgan, S. (1999). Health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Journal of Child Family Nursing, 2(4), 237–249; quiz 250–231.Google Scholar
- Sykes, D. L. (1999). Transgendered people: An “invisible” population (Vol. 12, No. 1), California: Office of AIDS.Google Scholar
- Xavier, J. M., and Simmons, R. (2000). The Washington Transgender Needs Assessment Survey.Google Scholar