Development pathways at the agriculture–urban interface: the case of Central Arizona
- 499 Downloads
Particular visions of urban development are often codified in multi-year resource management policies. These policies, and the negotiations leading to them, are based in specific problem frames and narratives with long legacies. As conditions change and knowledge improves, there is often a need to revisit how problems, opportunities, and development pathways were defined historically, and to consider the viability of alternative pathways for development. In this article, we examine the case of agriculture near Metropolitan Phoenix, in the Central Arizona region, to highlight how frames and narratives embedded in policy can reinforce particular development pathways, even as information, conditions, and values evolve. Using expert interviews and secondary data, we document alternative frames and narratives that may offer different pathways for development and sustainability in the region. By highlighting alternative narratives, we demonstrate the uncertainties and limitations associated with all narratives about development pathways, and explore the possibilities that narrative shifts can alter future outcomes.
KeywordsAgriculture–urban interface Local agriculture Pathways Frames and narratives Arizona
Arizona Department of Water Resources
Active Management Areas
Best Available Retrofit Technology
Central Arizona Project
Environmental Protection Agency
Groundwater Management Act of 1980
Navajo Generating Station
United States Department of Agriculture
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant SES-0951366, Decision Center for a Desert City II: Urban Climate Adaptation, with additional support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, CSI Award #NA110AR4310123, H. Eakin, PI. All findings presented are the responsibility of the authors, not the funding agencies. We would like to thank the interview participants for sharing their time, knowledge, and perspectives; Dr. Marty Anderies, John Connors, Emily Kaba, Summer Waters, Jessica Welch, and Sally Wittlinger for their support in this research; Sally Wittlinger for preparing Fig. 1; the 2012 Adaptation, Resilience, and Transformation workshop participants (Angela Cazel-Jahn, Cathy Rubiños, Skaidra Smith-Heisters, Jose Sosa, Robinson Torres Salinas) for their content analysis of public documents related to water and agriculture in Central Arizona; Dr. Ian Scoones and Dr. John Thompson (STEPS Centre) for sharing their useful insights during the early stages of writing this manuscript; and Dr. Allain Barnett (University of New Brunswick), Editor Dr. Harvey S. James Jr. and the reviewers for their constructive feedback that improved the manuscript.
- Arizona Community Farmers Markets. 2014. Arizona Community Farmers Markets. http://www.arizonacommunityfarmersmarkets.com. Accessed 25 Oct 2014.
- Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). 2011a. Phoenix active management area water demand and supply assessment: 1985–2025. Phoenix, AZ: ADWR. http://www.azwater.gov/azdwr/WaterManagement/Assessments/documents/PhxAMA_AssessmentSummarySheet.pdf. Accessed 4 June 2014.
- Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). 2011b. Pinal active management area water demand and supply assessment: 1985–2025. Phoenix, AZ: ADWR. http://www.azwater.gov/azdwr/WaterManagement/Assessments/documents/PINALASSESSMENTINFOSHEETNov2011.pdf. Accessed 4 June 2014.
- Arizona Municipal Water Users Association (AMWUA). 2013. Summary of the CAP agricultural water incentive pricing program. Phoenix, AZ: AMWUA. http://www.amwua.org/pdfs/40_201305_mgmt_item5b.pdf. Accessed 3 June 2014.
- Barringer, F. 2011. Empty fields fill urban basins and farmers’ pockets. New York Times, October 23. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/24/science/earth/24water.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. Accessed 26 June 2014.
- Bernard, H.R. 2011. Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. New York: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
- Bureau of Reclamation. 2012. Colorado river basin water supply and demand study: Study report. Boulder City, NV: Bureau of Reclamation, US Department of Interior.Google Scholar
- City of Phoenix. 2011. 2011 Water resource plan. Phoenix, AZ: Water Services Department.Google Scholar
- Connall, D.D. 1982. A history of the Arizona Groundwater Management Act. Arizona State Law Journal 1982(2): 313–344.Google Scholar
- Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics (DARE). 2010. Impacts of agricultural production and specialty crops on Arizona’s economy in 2007, ADDENDUM REPORT. Tucson, AZ: DARE, University of Arizona. http://ag.arizona.edu/arec/pubs/impactsfromagproduction2007addendum2010.pdf. Accessed 26 June 2014.
- Eden, S., R. Glennon, A. Ker, G. Libecap, S. Megdal, and T. Shipman. 2008. Agricultural water to municipal use: The legal and institutional context for voluntary transactions in Arizona. The Water Report 58: 9–20.Google Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2008. Climate change and food security: A framework document. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2014. The international year of family farming. http://www.fao.org/family-farming-2014/en. Accessed 4 Jan 2014.
- Forstall, R.L. 1995. Arizona population of counties by Decennial census: 1900 to 1990. Washington, DC: Population Division, US Bureau of the Census.Google Scholar
- Forsyth, T. 2003. Critical political ecology: The politics of environmental science. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Gammage, G. 1999. Phoenix in perspective: Reflections on developing the desert. Tempe, AZ: Herberger Centre for Design Excellence, College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Arizona State University.Google Scholar
- Gammage, G., M. Stigler, D. Daugherty, S. Clark-Johnson, and W. Hart. 2011. Watering the Sun Corridor: Managing choices in Arizona’s Megapolitan area. Phoenix, AZ: Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University.Google Scholar
- Garfin, G., A. Jardine, R. Merideth, M. Black, and S. LeRoy, eds. 2013. Assessment of climate change in the Southwest United States: A report prepared for the national climate assessment. Southwest Climate Alliance, National Climate Assessment Regional Technical Input Report Series. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
- Groundwater Users Advisory Committee (GUAC). 2012. Assessment of the assessment/fourth management plan development: Phoenix AMA. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Department of Water Resources. http://www.azwater.gov/AzDWR/WaterManagement/AMAs/documents/PHXAMA_GUAC_AssessmentoftheAssessment_4MP.pdf. Accessed 25 June 2013.
- Hajer, M.A. 1995. The politics of environmental discourse: Ecological modernization and the policy process. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
- Hall, T.E., and D.D. White. 2008. Representing recovery: Science and local control in the framing of U.S. Pacific Northwest salmon policy. Research in Human Ecology 15(1): 32–45.Google Scholar
- Herbers, J. 1980. Indians and Arizona clash over water. The New York Times, December 17, p. A.15.Google Scholar
- Hinrichs, C.C., and T.A. Lyson (eds.). 2007. Remaking the North American food system: Strategies for sustainability. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
- Jervey, B. 2014. Exporting the Colorado River to Asia, Through Hay. National Geographic, January 23. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/01/140123-colorado-river-water-alfalfa-hay-farming-export-asia/. Accessed 26 June 2014.
- Kaufman, J., and M. Bailkey. 2000. Farming inside cities: Entrepreneurial urban agriculture in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.Google Scholar
- Kiefer, M. 1992. Down the drain are we having a crisis yet? Phoenix New Times, April 22. http://www.phoenixnewtimes.com/1992-04-22/news/down-the-drain-are-we-having-a-crisis-yet/. Accessed 26 June 2014.
- Kingdon, J.W. 2003. Agendas, alternatives, and public policies, 2nd ed. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
- Kingsolver, B., S. Hopp, and C. Kingsolver. 2007. Animal, vegetable, miracle: A year of food life. New York: Harper Perennial.Google Scholar
- Larson, K.L., and D. Lach. 2010. Equity in urban water governance through participatory, place-based approaches. Natural Resources Journal 50(2): 407–430.Google Scholar
- Leach, M., I. Scoones, and A. Stirling. 2010. Dynamic sustainabilities: Technology, environment, social justice. Washington, DC: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Lebel, L., J.M. Anderies, B. Campbell, C. Folke, S. Hatfield-Dodds, T.P. Hughes, and J. Wilson. 2006. Governance and the capacity to manage resilience in regional social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society 11(1): 19.Google Scholar
- Maguire, R.P. 2006. Patching the holes in the bucket: Safe yield and the future of water management in Arizona. Arizona Law Review 49(2): 1–23.Google Scholar
- McKinnon, S. 2009. For farm-water rights, planners ready to deal. The Arizona Republic, October 26. http://www.azcentral.com/news/articles/2009/10/26/20091026water-users-pinal1026.html. Accessed 26 June 2014.
- Mehta, L. (ed.). 2010. The limits to scarcity: Contesting the politics of allocation. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Morrison Institute for Public Policy. 2014. Arizona indicators: Industrial composition, sectoral share in Arizona, 2011. Phoenix, AZ: Morrison Institute for Public Policy. http://arizonaindicators.org/economy/industrial-composition. Accessed 4 June 2014.
- Mougeot, L.J.A. 2006. Growing better cities: Urban agriculture for sustainable development. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
- Nabhan, G.P. 2002. Coming home to eat. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.Google Scholar
- National Research Council. 2007. Colorado river basin water management: Evaluating and adjusting to hyroclimatic variability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Navajo Generating Station (NGS). 2014. Best Available Retrofit Technology (BART): Salt river project. http://www.ngspower.com/bart.aspx. Accessed 21 June 2014.
- Needham, R., and P.N. Wilson. 2005. Water conservation policy in Arizona agriculture: Assessing the Groundwater Management Act of 1980. Arizona Review 3(1): 13–16.Google Scholar
- Pollan, M. 2006. The omnivore’s dilemma: A natural history of four meals. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- QSR International. 2007. NVivo qualitative data analysis software. Doncaster: QSR International Pty Ltd.Google Scholar
- Redman, C.L., and A.P. Kinzig. 2008. Water can flow uphill: A narrative of Central Arizona. In Agrarian landscapes in transition: Comparisons of long-term ecological and cultural change, ed. C.L. Redman, and D.R. Foster, 238–271. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Repetto, R. 2012. Economic and environmental impacts of climate change in Arizona. New York: Dēmos. http://www.demos.org/publication/economic-and-environmental-impacts-climate-change-arizona. Accessed 26 June 2014.
- Sahagun, L. 1993. The great Arizona water war: Farmers, city dwellers wonder who’s getting soaked. Austin American Statesman, July 3, C.36.Google Scholar
- Sheridan, T.E. 1995. Arizona: A history. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
- Smith, K.L. 2012. “The Third Way”: Accommodating agriculture and urban growth. Phoenix, AZ: Grand Canyon Institute.Google Scholar
- Snow, D.A., and R.D. Benford. 1988. Ideology, frame resonance, and participant mobilization. In From structure to action: Comparing social movement research across cultures, ed. B. Klandermans, H. Kriesi, and S. Tarrow. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
- Stolte, D. 2012. Arizona Pest Management Centre earns EPA award. Western Farm Press, April 26. http://westernfarmpress.com/cotton/arizona-pest-management-center-earns-epa-award. Accessed 26 June 2014.
- Sumberg, J., and J. Thompson (eds.). 2012. Contested agronomy: Agricultural research in a changing world. New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.Google Scholar
- Taylor, C. 2013. Food security and financial success in Central Arizona Farmers’ Markets: Presences, absences, lived experience, and governance. Ph.D. thesis. Tempe, AZ: School of Sustainability, Arizona State University.Google Scholar
- United States Bureau of the Census (USBC). 2014. State and County QuickFacts: Maricopa County, Arizona. Washington, DC: US Bureau of the Census. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/04/04013.html. Accessed 4 June 2014.
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1982. 1982 Census of Agriculture County data—Farms, land in farms, and land use: 1982 and 1978. Washington, DC: USDA.Google Scholar
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2012a. 2012 Census of Agriculture—county data Arizona. Washington, DC: USDA. http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2012/Full_Report/Volume_1,_Chapter_2_County_Level/Arizona/st04_2_001_001.pdf. Accessed 4 June 2014.
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2012b. 2012 Census of Agriculture state profile: Arizona. Washington, DC: USDA. http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2012/Online_Resources/County_Profiles/Arizona/cp99004.pdf. Accessed 17 June 2014.
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2012c. Table 1 County summary highlights: 2012, Arizona. Washington, DC: USDA.Google Scholar
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2013. State export data. Washington, DC: USDA. http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/state-export-data.aspx#.U6Cipo1dXcp. Accessed 17 June 2014.
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2015. Quick Stats. Washington, DC: USDA. http://quickstats.nass.usda.gov/. Accessed 12 Feb 2015.
- United States Geological Survey (USGS). 2010. Basic tables by category, totals, overall by categories, by County—Arizona, 2010, water withdrawals (Mgal/d). Tucson, AZ: USGS.Google Scholar
- van Eeten, M. 1999. Dialogues of the deaf: Defining new agendas for environmental deadlocks. The Netherlands: Eburon.Google Scholar
- Vilsack, T., and C.Z.F. Clark. 2010. 2007 Census of Agriculture: Organic Production Survey (2008), volume 3, special studies, part 2. Washington, DC: USDA. http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2007/Online_Highlights/Organics/ORGANICS.pdf. Accessed 25 Oct 2014.
- White, D.D., L. Withycombe Keeler, A. Wiek, and K.L. Larson. (2015). Envisioning the future of water governance: A survey of central Arizona water decision makers. Environmental Practice. doi: 10.1017/S1466046614000489.
- World Bank 2007. World development report 2008: Agriculture for development. Washington, DC: World Bank. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDRS/Resources/477365-1327599046334/WDR_00_book.pdf. Accessed 1 Jan 2014.
- York, A.M., H. Eakin, S. Smith-Heisters, J.C. Bausch, R. Aggarwal and J.M. Anderies. (in review). Public adaptation through the backdoor: Can we move to anticipatory water governance? Environmental Policy and Governance. Google Scholar