Beyond the vertical? Using value chains and governance as a framework to analyse private standards initiatives in agri-food chains
- 1.6k Downloads
The significance of private standards and associated local level initiatives in agri-food value chains are increasingly recognised. However whilst issues related to compliance and impact at the smallholder or worker level have frequently been analysed, the governance implications in terms of how private standards affect national level institutions, public, private and non-governmental, have had less attention. This article applies an extended value chain framework for critical analysis of Private Standards Initiatives (PSIs) in agrifood chains, drawing on primary research on PSIs operating in Kenyan horticulture (Horticulture Ethical Business Initiative and KenyaGAP). The paper explores the legislative, executive and judicial aspects of governance in these southern PSIs highlighting how different stakeholders shape debates and act with agency. It is argued that governance is exercised ‘beyond the vertical’ in that one can identify wider horizontal processes of governance, including how the scope of key debates is constructed (especially in legislative governance) but analysis of executive governance emphasises the dominant role of the lead buyers.
KeywordsKenya Private standards Governance Value chain analysis
The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council and Department for International Development, for the project Governance Implications of Private Standards Initiatives in Agri-Food Chains, grant ref: RES-167-25-0195.
- Auret, Diana, and Stephanie Barrientos. 2004. Participatory social auditing: A practical guide to developing a gender-sensitive approach, IDS Working Paper 237, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.Google Scholar
- Barrientos, Stephanie. 2007. Corporate codes of labour practice: Can the most vulnerable workers benefit? IDS Policy Briefing 35 http://www.ids.ac.uk/UserFiles/File/poverty_team/PB35.pdf. Accessed 12 April 2008.
- Barrrientos, S., and Sally Smith. 2007. Mainstreaming fair trade in global production networks: Own brand fruit and chocolate in UK supermarkets. In Fair trade: The challenges of transforming globalization, ed. Laura Raynolds, Douglas Murray, and John Wilkison, 103–122. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Blowfield, Michael. 2002. ETI: A multi-stakeholder approach. In Corporate responsibility and labour right, ed. Rhys Jenkins, Ruth Pearson, and Gill Seyfang, 184–195. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Bolwig, Simon, Stefano Ponte, Andries du Toit, Lone Riisgaard, and Niels Halberg. 2008. Integrating poverty, gender and environmental Concerns into value chain analysis: A conceptual framework and lessons for action research, DIIS Working Paper no 2008/16, http://www.diis.dk/graphics/Publications/WP2008/WP08-16_Integrating_Poverty%2C_Gender_and_Environmental_Concerns_into_Value_Chain_Analysis.pdf. Accessed May 2009.
- Braun, Rainer, and Judy Gerhart. 2005. Who should code your conduct? Labor unions and NGO differences in the fight for workers’ rights. In Development NGOs and labor unions, ed. Deborah Eade, and Alan Leather, 203–221. Bloomfield CT: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
- Brown, Pins. 2005. Addressing labour practices on Kenyan flower farms, Report of ETI involvement 2002-2004, http://www.eti2.org.uk/Z/lib/2005/02/rept-kenyaflwrs/ETIrept-KenyaFlowers2005.pdf. Accessed 28 November 2008.
- Busch, Lawrence, Deepa Thiagarajan, Maki Hatanaka, Carmen Bain, Luis G Flores, and Mark Frahm. 2005. The relationship of third-party certification (TPC) to sanitary/phytosanitary (SPS) measures and the international agri-food trade: Final Report, raise SPS global analytical report 9, prepared for USAID by Development Alternatives Inc. http://ifas.msu.edu/downloads/The%20Relationship%20of%20TPC%20to%20SPS%20Measures-Final%20Report%20+%20Annexes.pdf. Accessed 28 November 2008.
- Dolan, Catherine, and Maggie Opondo. 2005. Seeking common ground: Multi-stakeholder processes in Kenya’s cut flower industry. Journal of Corporate Citizenship 8: 87–98.Google Scholar
- Dolan, Catherine, Maggie Opondo, and Sally Smith. 2003. Gender, rights and participation in the Kenya cut flower industry, NRI Report No. 2768. Chatham: Natural Resources Institute.Google Scholar
- Ethical Trading Initiative. 2007. Getting smarter at auditing. Tackling the growing crisis in ethical trade auditing, Ethical Trading Initiative. http://www.eti2.org.uk/Z/lib/2006/11/smart-audit/eti-smarter-auditing-2006.pdf. Accessed 28 October 2008.
- Foreign Investment Advisory Service. 2005. Alternatives to public sector inspections: Public–private partnerships and corporate social responsibility. http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/economics.nsf/Content/CSR-ConferencePublicSectorInspections. Accessed 28 November 2008.
- Fuchs, Doris, and Markus M. L. Lederer. 2007. The power of business. Business and Politics, 9 (3) http://www.bepress.com/bap/vol9/iss3/art1/.
- Fuchs, Doris, and Agni, Kalfagianni. 2009. The democratic legitimacy of private authority in the food chain. In The challenges of global business authority: Democratic renewal, stalemate or decay?, ed. Tony Porter and Karsten Ronit, New York: SUNY Press (Forthcoming).Google Scholar
- Garbutt, Nigel. 2007. Food quality schemes in the international context: KenyaGAP experiences and lessons learnt, food quality certification, Brussels, 5–6 February 2007. http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/events/qualityconference/garbutt_en.pdf. Accessed 14 March 2008.
- Garbutt, Nigel, and Elmé Coetzer. 2005. Options for the development of national/sub-regional codes of good agricultural practice for horticultural products benchmarked to EurepGAP, Consultation Draft: September 2005, Presentation to UNCTAD. http://r0.unctad.org/trade_env/test1/meetings/inmetro2/EurepGAP_benchmarking_UNCTAD_November-NG.pdf. Accessed 28 November 2008.
- Gereffi, Gary. 1994. The organization of buyer driven global commodity chains: How U.S. retailers shape overseas production networks’. In Commodity chains and global capitalism, ed. Gary Gereffi, and Miguel Korzeniewicz, 95–123. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Gereffi, Gary. 1995. Global production systems and third world development. In Global change, regional response: The new international context of development, ed. Barbara Stallings, 100–142. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Gibbon, Peter, and Stefano Ponte. 2005. Trading down. Africa, value chains and the global economy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
- Giovanucci, Daniele, and Stefano Ponte. 2005. Standards as a new form of social contract? Sustainability initiatives in the coffee industry. Food Policy 30 (1): 284–301.Google Scholar
- Graffham, Andrew, Esther Karehu, and James MacGregor. 2007. Impact of EurepGAP on small-scale vegetable growers in Kenya. Fresh Insights 6, http://www.agrifoodstandards.net/resources/global/fresh_insights_6_impact_of_eurepgap_on_small_scale_vegetable_growers_in_kenya. Accessed 24 May 2008.
- Hale, Angela, and Maggie Opondo. 2005. Humanising the cut flower chain: Confronting the realities of flower production for workers in Kenya. Antipode 38.Google Scholar
- HEBI. 2005. HEBI summative report, September 2003–April 2005. http://www.hebi.or.ke/hebi-annual-quarterly-report.htm. Accessed 1 December 2008.
- HEBI. 2008. HEBI homepage. http://www.hebi.or.ke/index.htm, Accessed 1 December 2008.
- HEBI. 2006. Short term consultancy: Development of business strategy for HEBI towards an ethical and responsible practices in Kenya horticulture industry, http://www.hebi.or.ke/hebi-newsletter.php. Accessed 9 October 2006.
- Henson, Spencer, and Thomas Reardon. 2005. Private agri-food standards: implications for food policy and the agri-food system. Food Policy 30 (3): 241–253.Google Scholar
- Humphrey, John. 2008. Private standards, small farmers and donor policy: EUREPGAP in Kenya, IDS Working Paper 308, Brighton: IDS.Google Scholar
- Jaffee, Steven. 2005. Food safety and agricultural health standards: Challenges and opportunities for developing country exports’, poverty reduction and economic management trade unit and agriculture and rural development department, report No 31207, Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
- Kaplinksy, Raphael, and Mike Morris. 2002. A handbook for value chain research, prepared for IDRC, Brighton: Institute for Development Studies, http://www.seepnetwork.org/content/library/detail/2303. Accessed 28 November 2008.
- Mbithi, Stephen. 2008a. Standards challenge in agri-trade: Kenya Horticulture, UNCTAD secretary-general’s high-level multi-stakeholder dialogue on commodities in the context of UNCTAD XII, 28-29 January 2008. http://www.unctad.org/sections/wcmu/docs/ditc_comb_15mbithi_en.pdf. Accessed 28 May 2009.
- Mbithi, Stephen. 2008b. KenyaGAP addressing small scale needs within GLOBALG.A.P. GlobalGAP conference. 17 October 2008 Cologne. http://www.globalgap.org/cms/upload/Resources/Presentations/Cologne/Mbithi_Stephen.pdf. Accessed 28 May 2009.
- Mbithi, Stephen. 2009. Raising national and regional standards to improve competitiveness: The role of the private sector. Presentation to CTA/PIP/ACP Consultations: Brussels 11 May 2009. http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/mbithi_eng.ppt. Accessed 28 May 2009.
- Natural Resources and Ethical Trade. 2002. Theme papers on codes of practice in the fresh produce sector’, Chatham: National Resources Institute, http://www.nri.org/nret. Accessed 28 November 2008.
- Neilson, J., and B. Pritchard. 2009. Value chain struggles: Institutions and governance in the plantation districts of South India. Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Raworth, Kate. 2004. Trading away our rights. Oxfam International. http://www.oxfam.org.uk/resources/policy/trade/downloads/trading_rights.pdf. Accessed 28 November 2008.
- Republic of Kenya. 2007. Economic survey, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Nairobi: Ministry of Planning and National Development.Google Scholar
- Riisgaard, Lone. 2008. Localizing private social standards: Standard initiatives in Kenyan cut flowers. DIIS Working Paper 2008/20. Danish Institute for International Studies.Google Scholar
- Riisgaard, Lone. 2009. Global value chains, labor organization and private social standards: Lessons from East African cut flower industries. World Development 37:2.Google Scholar
- Stanton, Gretchen. 2009. WTO’s work on private standards. http://sms.mofcom.gov.cn/accessory/200812/1228894575307.ppt#256,1,WTO’s Work on Private Standards. Accessed 1 June 2009.
- Tallontire, Anne, Catherine Dolan, Sally Smith, and Stephanie Barrientos. 2007. Reaching the marginalised? Gender, value chains and ethical trade in African horticulture. Development in Practice 15 (3–4): 559–571.Google Scholar
- Traidcraft. 2007. A fresh perspective: Sourcing vegetables from developing countries London: Traidcraft. http://www.traidcraft.co.uk/international_development/policy_work/purchasing_practices/purchasing_practices_reports.htm. Accessed 1 December 2008.
- Utting, Peter. 2005. Re-thinking business regulation: From self-regulation to social control, programme paper technology. UNRISD: Business and Society Research Programme.Google Scholar
- Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer, London: UK Food Group, http://www.ukfg.org.uk/docs/UKFG-Foodinc-Nov03.pdf. Accessed 28 November 2008.
- Women Working Worldwide. 2007. Promoting women workers’ rights in African horticulture. Overview of research into conditions on horticulture farms in Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania and Uganda. September 2007. http://www.women-ww.org/WWW_Research_Overview_FINAL.pdf. Accessed 28 May 2008.
- World Bank. 2005. Kenya: Exporting out of Africa—Kenya’s horticulture success story, scaling up poverty reduction, case studies and global learning process, http://info.worldbank.org/etools/reducingpoverty/docs/newpdfs/case-summ-Kenya-Horticultural.pdf. Accessed 28 November 2008.