Advertisement

Agriculture and Human Values

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 461–472 | Cite as

Influence of socio-economic and cultural factors in rice varietal diversity management on-farm in Nepal

  • Ram Bahadur RanaEmail author
  • Chris Garforth
  • Bhuwon Sthapit
  • Devra Jarvis
Article

Abstract

A questionnaire survey of 408 households explored the role of socio-economic and cultural factors in rice (Oryza sativa L.) varietal diversity management on-farm in two contrasting eco-sites in Nepal. Multiple regression outputs suggest that number of parcels of land, livestock number, number of rice ecosystems, agro-ecology (altitude), and use of chemical fertilizer have a significant positive influence on landrace diversity on-farm, while membership in farmers’ groups linked to extension services has significant but negative influence on landrace diversity. Factors with significant positive influence on diversity of modern varieties on-farm were number of parcels of land and of rice ecosystems, access to irrigation, membership in farmers’ groups, and use of insecticide. Within communities, resource-endowed households maintain significantly higher varietal diversity on-farm than resource-poor households and play a significant role in conserving landraces that are vulnerable to genetic erosion and those with socio-cultural and market-preferred traits. Resource-poor households also contribute to local diversity conservation but at lower richness and area coverage levels than resource-endowed households. Households where a female had assumed the role of head of household due to death or migrant work of her husband had less diversity due to lower labor availability. Landraces with socio-cultural and market-preferred traits are few in number but have potential to be conserved on-farm.

Keywords

Agricultural biodiversity Landraces Modern variety Nepal On-farm conservation Rice Varietal diversity 

Abbreviations

ANOV

Analysis of variance

CBD

Convention on biological diversity

ha

Hectare

HH

Household

MV

Modern variety

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, A. M., T. G. Evans, R. Mohammed, and J. Farnsworth (1997). “Socioeconomic stratification by wealth ranking: Is it valid?” Working Paper Series No. 97.02. Retrieved from http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/hcpds/wpweb/97_02.pdf on February 1, 2005
  2. Altieri M. A., L. C. Merrick (1987). In situ conservation of crop genetic resources through maintenance of traditional farming systems. Economic Botany 41: 86–96Google Scholar
  3. Bajracharya, J. (2003). Genetic Diversity Study in Landraces of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Agro-morphological Characters and Mircosatellite DNA Markers. PhD dissertation. United Kingdom: School of Agriculture and Forest Sciences, University of WalesGoogle Scholar
  4. Bellon M. R. (1996). The dynamics of crop infraspecific diversity: A conceptual framework at the farmer level. Economic Botany 50: 26–39Google Scholar
  5. Bellon M. R. (2004). Conceptualizing interventions to support on-farm genetic resource conservation. World Development 32(1): 159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown A. H. D., T. Hodgkin (2007). Measuring, managing and maintaining crop genetic diversity on farm. In: Jarvis D., Padoch C., Cooper D. (eds.) Managing Biodiversity in Agricultural Ecosystems. Colombia University Press, New York, pp. 13–33Google Scholar
  7. Brush S. B. (1989). Rethinking crop genetic resource conservation. Conservation Biology 3: 19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brush S. B. (1995). In situ conservation of landraces in centers of crop diversity. Crop Science 35: 346–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campilan, D. (2002). Farmer Management of Sweet Potato Diversity in a Changing Livelihood System: A Case from Central Luzon, Philippines. Sourcebook Produced by CIP-UPWARD, in partnership with GTZ GmbH, IDRC, IPGRI, and SEARICEGoogle Scholar
  10. Carpenter D. (2005). The in situ conservation of rice plant genetic diversity: A case study from a Philippine barangay. Agriculture and Human Values 22(4): 421–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cromwell E., S. van Oosterhout (2000). On-farm conservation of crop diversity: Policy and institutional lessons from Zimbabwe. In: Brush S. B. (eds.) Genes in the Field: On-farm Conservation of Crop Diversity. IPGRI, IDRC, and Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 217–238Google Scholar
  12. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (1998). The State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. FAO, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  13. Franzel, S., D. Phiri, P. Mafongoya, I. Jere, R. Katanga, and S. Phiri (2003). The Blending of Participatory and Quantitative Methods: Wealth status, Gender and the Adoption of Improved Fallows in Zambia. Paper presented at the 25th International Conference of Agricultural Economists (IAAE), August 16–22, Durban, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  14. Gauchan D., M. Smale, P. Chaudhary (2005). Market-based incentives for conserving diversity on-farms: The case of rice landraces in Central Terai, Nepal. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52: 293–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gonzales T. A. (2000). The cultures of the seed in the Peruvian Andes. In: Brush S. B. (eds.) Genes in the Field: On-farm Conservation of Crop Diversity. IPGRI, IDRC and Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 193–216Google Scholar
  16. Gupta, S. R., M. P. Upadhyay, and T. Katsumoto (1996). Status of Plant Genetic Resources in Nepal. Paper presented on the 19th Summer Crops Workshop, Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), February 27–29, Parwanipur, NepalGoogle Scholar
  17. Gurung J. B., A. K. Vaidya (1998). Cultural context of agricultural biodiversity and sustainable agriculture in the Nepalese hills and mountains. In: Pratap T., Sthapit B. R. (eds.) Managing Agrobiodiversity: Farmers’ Changing Perspectives and Institutional Responses in the HKH Region. ICIMOD and IPGRI, Kathmandu, Nepal, pp. 55–60Google Scholar
  18. Harlan J. R. (1975). Our vanishing genetic resources. Science 188: 618–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hugo P.R, S. B. Brush, C. O. Qualset (2003). Landraces of maize in Central Mexico: An altitudinal transect. Economic Botany 57(1): 7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jarvis, D. and T. Hodgkin (eds.) (1998). Strengthening the Scientific Basis of in situ Conservation of Agricultural Biodiversity On-farm: Options for Data Collecting and Analysis. Proceedings of Workshop to Develop Tools and Procedures for in situ Conservation On-farm, August 25–29, 1997. Rome, Italy: IPGRIGoogle Scholar
  21. Jarvis D., L. Myer, H. Klemick, L. Guarino, M. Smale, A. H.D. Brown, M. Sadiki, B. Sthapit, T. Hodgkin (2000). A Training Guide for In Situ Conservation On-farm. IPGRI, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  22. LARC (Lumle Agricultural Research Centre) (1995). The Adoption and Diffusion and Incremental Benefits of Fifteen Technologies for Crops, Horticulture, Livestock and Forestry in the Western Hills of Nepal. LARC Occasional Paper 95/1. Pokhara, Nepal: LARCGoogle Scholar
  23. Negash A., A. Niehof (2004). The significance of enset culture and biodiversity for rural household food and livelihood security in southwestern Ethiopia. Agriculture and Human Values 21(1): 61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Negri V. (2003). Landraces in Central Italy: Where and why they are conserved and perspectives for their on-farm conservation. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 50: 871–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Odero, K. K. (1998). Socio-economic Factors Determining On-farm Agricultural Biodiversity in Zimbabwe. A Study Sponsored by IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Regional Office for Southern Africa. Harare, Zimbabwe: IUCNGoogle Scholar
  26. Pingali P., M. Hussain, R. V. Gerpacio (1997). Asian Rice Bowls: The Returning Crisis? CABI International, Wallinford, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  27. Prain, G. and M. Piniero (1994). “Community curatorship of plant genetic resources in southern Philippines: Preliminary findings.” In G. Prain and C. Bagalanon (eds.), Local Knowledge, Global Sciences and Plant Genetic Resources: Towards a Partnership. Proceedings of an International Workshop on User Participation in Plant Genetic Resources Research and Development, May 4–8, 1992 (pp. 191–220). Los Banos, Philippines: UPWARDGoogle Scholar
  28. Rana, R. B. (2004). Influence of Socio-economic and Cultural Factors on Agrobiodiversity Conservation On-farm in Nepal. PhD dissertation. Reading, United Kingdom: University of ReadingGoogle Scholar
  29. Rana R. B., D. Gauchan, D. K. Rijal, S. P. Khatiwada, C. L. Paudel, P. Chaudhary, P. R. Tiwari (2000). Socio-economic Data Collection and Analysis: Nepal Component. In: Jarvis D., Sthapit B., Sears L. (eds) Conserving Agricultural Biodiversity In Situ: A Scientific Basis for Sustainable Agriculture. IPGRI, Rome, Italy, pp. 54–59Google Scholar
  30. Reddy, R. V. (1997). Wealth Ranking in Socio-economic Research: Substitute or Complement? Discussion Paper 65. Heidelberg, Germany: FIAGoogle Scholar
  31. Sadiki M., D. Jarvis, D. Rijal, J. Bajracharya, N. Hue, T. Camacho-Villa, L. Burgos-May, M. Sawadogo, D. Balma, D. Lope, L. Arias, I. Mar, D. Karamura, D. Williams, J. Chavez-Servia, B. Sthapit, V. Rao (2007). Variety names: An entry point to crop genetic diversity and distribution in agroecosystems? In: Jarvis D., Padoch C., Cooper D. (eds.) Managing Biodiversity in Agricultural Ecosystems. Colombia University Press, New York, pp. 34–76Google Scholar
  32. Smale, M. (ed.) (2006). Valuing Crop Biodiversity: On-farm Genetic Resources and Economic Change. Wallingford, Oxon, United Kingdom: CABI PublishingGoogle Scholar
  33. Soleri D., D. A. Cleveland (1993). Hopi crop diversity and change. Journal of Ethnobiology 13(2): 203–231Google Scholar
  34. Sperling L., M. Loevinsohn (1993). The dynamics of adoption: Distribution and mortality of bean varieties among small farmers in Rwanda. Agricultural Systems 41(4): 441–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sthapit, B, K. Joshi, R. Rana, M. Upadhyay, P. Eyzaguirre, and D. Jarvis (2001). Enhancing biodiversity and production through participatory plant breeding: Setting breeding goals. In: An Exchange of Experiences from South and Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Participatory Plant Breeding and Participatory Plant Genetic Resource Enhancement, May 1–5, 2000 (pp. 29–54). Pokhara, Nepal: Participatory Research and Gender Analysis (PRGA)Google Scholar
  36. Subedi A., P. Chaudhary, B. K. Baniya, R. B. Rana, R. K. Tiwari, D. K. Rijal, B. R. Sthapit, D. I. Jarvis (2003). Who maintains crop diversity and how: Implications for on-farm conservation and utilization. Culture and Agriculture 25(2): 41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Swaminathan M. S., G. Castillo (2000). Foreword. In: C. Almekinders W. De Boef (eds) Encouraging Diversity: The Conservation and Development of Plant Genetic Resources. IT Publications, London, United Kingdom, pp. xi–xiiGoogle Scholar
  38. Tripp R. (1996). Biodiversity and modern crop varieties: Sharpening the debate. Agriculture and Human Values 13(4): 48–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Turton K., A. Vaidya, J. Tuladhar, K. Joshi (1997). The use of complementary methods to understand the dimensions of soil fertility in the hills of Nepal. PLA Notes 28: 37–41Google Scholar
  40. Unnevehr, L., B. Duff, and B. O. Juliano (1992). Consumer Demand for Rice Grain Quality. Terminal Report of IDRC Projects. National Grain Quality (Asia) and International Grain Quality Economics (Asia). Ottawa, Canada: IDRC and Los Banos, Philippines: IRRIGoogle Scholar
  41. Wood D., J. M. Lenne (1997). The conservation of agrobiodiversity on-farm: Questioning the emerging paradigm. Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 109–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. WRI (World Resources Institute)/IUCN (The World Conservation Union)/UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (1992). “Losses of biodiversity and their causes.” In: Global Biodiversity Strategy (pp. 7–18). World Resources Institute, The World Conservation Union and United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved from http://pdf.wri.org/globalbiodiversitystrategy_2.pdf on December 1, 2006

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ram Bahadur Rana
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Chris Garforth
    • 2
  • Bhuwon Sthapit
    • 3
  • Devra Jarvis
    • 4
  1. 1.Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research, and Development (LI-BIRD)PokharaNepal
  2. 2.International and Rural Development DepartmentUniversity of ReadingReadingUnited Kingdom
  3. 3.International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI)PokharaNepal
  4. 4.International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI)RomeItaly

Personalised recommendations