Advertisement

What attributes guide best practice for effective feedback? A scoping review

  • Christine Ossenberg
  • Amanda Henderson
  • Marion Mitchell
Review

Abstract

There has been an observed increase in literature concerning feedback within the last decade, with the importance of feedback well documented. Current discourse promotes feedback as an interactive, dialogic process between the learner and the learning partner. While much has been written about effective feedback, less is known about key elements that support dialogic feedback. It is therefore important to investigate what is known about the elements that guide best practice for effective feedback. A scoping review of the extant literature following Arksey and O’Malley’s methodology was conducted. A search of literature published in English identified sixty-one publications eligible for this review. Publications were representative of the international literature from both empirical and non-empirical sources. Feedback elements were extracted from the included publications and categorised into 11 core attributes. The attributes identified feedback as: being a process; criteria-based; requiring multiple forms and sources of data/evidence; needs to be desired by the recipient (i.e. invited and welcomed); timely; responsive to the learner (i.e. tailored to developmental needs/learning preferences of the learner); frequent; future-focussed; reciprocal (i.e. two-way); involves skilful interaction; and is multidimensional (i.e. engages the learner in more than one way). Despite the rhetoric on feedback as a ‘dialogic process’, a gap remains in our understanding around what is required to engage the learner as an equal partner in the feedback process. Further research exploring the impact of specific aspects of the feedback process on practice is required.

Keywords

Attributes Best practice Effective Feedback Scoping review 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This review was undertaken as part of doctoral studies supported by Metro South Health Study, Education and Research Trust Account post graduate scholarship and a Research Training Program Domestic Fee Offset scholarship provided by the Australian Government Department of Education and Training (administered by Griffith University).

Author Contribution

CO: conceived the paper; gathered, analysed and interpreted the data and prepared the manuscript. AH: contributed to the data analysis and suggested revisions to the manuscript. MM: contributed to the data analysis and suggested revisions to the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

No. Not applicable for a literature review.

Supplementary material

10459_2018_9854_MOESM1_ESM.doc (299 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 299 kb)

References

  1. Adamson, E., King, L., Foy, L., McLeod, M., Traynor, J., Watson, W., et al. (2018). Feedback in clinical practice: Enhancing the students’ experience through action research. Nurse Education in Practice, 31, 48–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajjawi, R., & Boud, D. J. (2017). Researching feedback dialogue: an interactional analysis approach. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 42(2), 252–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Archer, J. C. (2010). State of the science in health professional education: Effective feedback. Medical Education, 44(1), 101–108.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03546.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arksey, H., & O’Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhattarai, M. (2007). ABCDEFG IS: The principle of constructive feedback. JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association, 46(167), 151–156.Google Scholar
  6. Boud, D. J., & Molloy, E. K. (2013). What is the problem with feedback? In D. J. Boud & E. K. Molloy (Eds.), Feedback in higher and professional education. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Bowen, L., Marshall, M., & Murdoch-Eaton, D. (2017). Medical student perceptions of feedback and feedback behaviors within the context of the “Educational Alliance”. Academic Medicine, 92(9), 1303–1312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brehaut, J. C., Colquhoun, H. L., Eva, K. W., Carroll, K., Sales, A., Michie, S., et al. (2016). Practice feedback interventions: 15 suggestions for optimizing effectiveness. Annals of Internal Medicine, 164(6), 435–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brinko, K. T. (1993). The practice of giving feedback to improve teaching: What is effective? Journal of Higher Education, 64(5), 574–593.Google Scholar
  10. Carless, D. (2015). Excellence in university assessment. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chipchase, L., Buttrum, P., Dunwoodie, R., Hill, A., Mandrusiak, A., & Moran, M. (2012). Characteristics of student preparedness for clinical learning: Clinical educator perspectives using a Delphi approach. BMC Medical Education, 12(1), 112.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-12-112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clark, S., & Duggins, A. (2016). Why use quality feedback to guide professional learning. In Using quality feedback to guide professional learning: A framework for instructional leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  13. Cleary, M. L., & Walter, G. (2010). Giving feedback to learners in clinical and academic settings: Practical considerations. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 41(4), 153–154.  https://doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20100326-10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davis, K., Drey, N., & Gould, D. (2009). What are scoping studies? A review of the nursing literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(10), 1386–1400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dobbie, A., & Tysinger, J. W. (2005). Evidence-based strategies that help office-based teachers give effective feedback. Family Medicine, 37(9), 617–619.Google Scholar
  16. Ende, J. (1983). Feedback in clinical medical education. JAMA, 250(6), 777–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flott, E., & Linden, L. (2015). The clinical learning environment in nursing education: A concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 72(3), 501–513.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Getzlaf, B., Perry, B., Toffner, G., Lamarche, K., & Edwards, M. (2009). Effective instructor feedback: Perceptions of online graduate students. Journal of Educators Online, 6(2), 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gravett, S., & Petersen, N. (2002). Structuring dialogue with students via learning tasks. Innovative Higher Education, 26(4), 281–291.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1015833114292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Greer, A., Pokorny, M., Clay, M., Brown, S., & Steele, L. (2010). Learner-centered characteristics of nurse educators. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship.  https://doi.org/10.2202/1548-923X.1710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Groves, M., Mitchell, M., Henderson, A., Jeffrey, C., Kelly, M., & Nulty, D. (2015). Critical factors about feedback: ‘They told me what I did wrong; but didn’t give me any feedback’. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(11–12), 1737–1739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Halman, S., Dudek, N., Wood, T., Pugh, D., Touchie, C., McAleer, S., et al. (2016). Direct observation of clinical skills feedback scale: Development and validity evidence. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 28(4), 385–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harrison, C. J., Konings, K. D., Schuwirth, L., Wass, V., & van der Vleuten, C. (2015). Barriers to the uptake and use of feedback in the context of summative assessment. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 20(1), 229–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hewson, M. G., & Little, M. L. (1998). Giving feedback in medical education: Verification of recommended techniques. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 13(2), 111–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hunter, T. S. (2009). Giving and receiving constructive feedback in pharmacy practice. Drug Topics, 153(6), 30–37.Google Scholar
  26. Killion, J. (2015). Attributes of an effective feedback process. In: The feedback process: Transforming feedback for professional learning. Oxford, Ohio: Learning Forward.Google Scholar
  27. Kitson, A. (1999). The relevance of scholarship for nursing research and practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29(4), 773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Latting, J. K. (1992). Giving corrective feedback: A decisional analysis. Social Work, 37(5), 424–430.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/37.5.424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Levac, D., Colquhoun, H., & O’Brien, K. K. (2010). Scoping studies: Advancing the methodology. Implementation Science, 5(1), 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McArthur, J., & Huxham, M. (2013). Feedback unbound: From master to usher. In S. Merry, M. Price, D. Carless, & M. Taras (Eds.), Reconceptualising feedback in higher education: developing dialogue with students (pp. 92–102). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Molloy, E. K., & Boud, D. J. (2013). Changing conceptions of feedback. In D. J. Boud & E. K. Molloy (Eds.), Feedback in higher and professional education. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Motley, C. L., & Dolansky, M. A. (2015). Five steps to providing effective feedback in the clinical setting: A new approach to promote teamwork and collaboration. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(7), 399–403.  https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20150617-08.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murdoch-Eaton, D., & Sargeant, J. (2012). Maturational differences in undergraduate medical students’ perceptions about feedback. Medical Education, 46(7), 711–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nicol, D., & MacFarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 199–218.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070600572090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nottingham, S., & Henning, J. (2014). Feedback in clinical education, part I: Characteristics of feedback provided by approved clinical instructors. Journal of Athletic Training, 49(1), 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. O’Donovan, B., Rust, C., & Price, M. (2016). A scholarly approach to solving the feedback dilemma in practice. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 41(6), 938–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pelgrim, E. A. M., Kramer, A. W. M., Mokkink, H. G. A., & van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2012). The process of feedback in workplace-based assessment: Organisation, delivery, continuity. Medical Education, 46(6), 604–612.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04266.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Perry, C., Henderson, A., & Grealish, L. (2018). The behaviours of nurses that increase student accountability for learning in clinical practice: An integrative review. Nurse Education Today, 65, 177–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2018.02.029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ramani, S., & Krackov, S. K. (2012). Twelve tips for giving feedback effectively in the clinical environment. Medical Teacher, 34(10), 787–791.  https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2012.684916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sargeant, J. M., Mann, K. V., van der Vleuten, C. P., & Metsemakers, J. F. (2009). Reflection: A link between receiving and using assessment feedback. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 14(3), 399–410.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-008-9124-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Suhoyo, Y., Van Hell, E. A., Kerdijk, W., Emilia, O., Schönrock-Adema, J., Kuks, J. B. M., et al. (2017). Influence of feedback characteristics on perceived learning value of feedback in clerkships: Does culture matter? BMC Medical Education, 17(1), 69.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-017-0904-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Thomas, J. D., & Arnold, R. M. (2011). Giving feedback. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 14(2), 233–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tracy, S. J. (2013). Qualitative research methods : Collecting evidence, crafting analysis, communicating impact. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  44. Turock, A. (1980). Trainer feedback: A method for teaching interpersonal skills. Counselor Education and Supervision, 19(3), 216–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Umiker, W. O. (1994). Performance feedback: The crown jewel of communication. MLO: Medical Laboratory Observer, 26(1), 43–45.Google Scholar
  46. van der Leeuw, R. M., & Slootweg, I. A. (2013). Twelve tips for making the best use of feedback. Medical Teacher, 35(5), 348–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. van der Leeuw, R. M., Teunissen, P. W., & van der Vleuten, C. P. (2018). Broadening the scope of feedback to promote its relevance to workplace learning. Academic Medicine, 93(4), 556–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Winstone, N. E., Nash, R. A., Rowntree, J., & Menezes, R. (2016). What do students want most from written feedback information? Distinguishing necessities from luxuries using a budgeting methodology. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 41(8), 1237–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wright, K. (2011). A chic critique. Psychology Today, 44(2), 54–63.Google Scholar
  50. Yang, M., & Carless, D. (2013). The feedback triangle and the enhancement of dialogic feedback processes. Teaching in Higher Education, 18(3), 285–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Griffith UniversityBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations