Advances in Health Sciences Education

, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 609–626 | Cite as

Factor analysis of a modified version of the California Brief Multicultural Competence Scale with minority pharmacy students

  • Margarita EcheverriEmail author
  • Cecile Brookover
  • Kathleen Kennedy


While most of the more frequently used self-report measures of cultural competence in health professionals are targeted to practicing physicians and mental health providers from the majority-white population, no measures have been specifically developed for minority pharmacy students. With the objective to find a suitable tool to be used for curriculum development in cultural competence, this study applied a modified version of the California Brief Multicultural Competence Scale (CBMCS) to 467 pharmacy students at the Xavier University of Louisiana, a Historically Black University. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were conducted to examine if the CBMCS factor structure was replicated using a modified tool and a different population and Cronbach alphas were calculated to determine internal consistency reliability. The CBMCS’s original factor structure was not replicated, perhaps because of modifications introduced in the original tool or because of differences between the sample population in this study (minority pharmacy students) and the population used in the original CBMCS study (majority-white mental health providers). However, results show that a modified factor structure fits the data well. The primary difference between the factors found in this study and the CBMCS factors is the appearance of a new factor composed of three items related to interpersonal and racial dynamics, which includes racial discrimination, white privilege, and power imbalance. The significant relationships (p < 0.001) found between respondents’ race and these three items suggest that the wording in these items should be modified when the respondents do not belong to the majority population. Results imply that racism, prejudice and bias are not just issues of the majority-white health providers and point to the need for more racially diverse samples. The unique results in this study advance research on racial dynamics and self-assessment of cultural competence of minority health professionals.


Self-assessment Factor analysis Cultural competence Racial dynamics Pharmacy students Minority health providers 



The authors would like to express our deep appreciation to Dr. Glenn Gamst, Chair Psychology Department, University of La Verne, California, and author of the CBMCS for granting us authorization to use and modify the CBMCS, and to Dr. Robert Like, Director Center for Healthy Families and Cultural Diversity, Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and the Editors and Reviewers for improving this manuscript through their comments. The authors also acknowledge the students who completed the survey instruments, the Faculty who authorized the application of the instrument, and the Institutional Review Board who approved the research. Funding: This work was supported by the National Cancer Institute [grant numbers 5P20CA118767-04 and 5P20CA118768-04].

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest in the conduct of this study or the preparation of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margarita Echeverri
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cecile Brookover
    • 1
  • Kathleen Kennedy
    • 1
  1. 1.Xavier University of LouisianaNew OrleansUSA

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