Advances in Health Sciences Education

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 305–313

Accreditation of Undergraduate and Graduate Medical Education: How do the Standards Contribute to Quality?



Accreditation organizations such as the Liaison Committee for Medical Education (LCME), the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC), and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are charged with the difficult task of evaluating the educational quality of medical education programs in North America. Traditionally accreditation includes a more quantitative rather than qualitative judgment of the educational facilities, resources and teaching provided by the programs. The focus is on the educational process but the contributions of these to the outcomes are not at all clear. As medical education moves toward outcome-based education related to a broad and context-based concept of competence, the accreditation paradigm should change accordingly.


accreditation graduate medical education outcome-based education undergraduate medical education 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beasley, B.W., Scrase, D.R., Schultz, H.J 2002Determining the predictors of internal medicine residency accreditation: What they do (not what they say)Academic Medicine77238246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bennett, N.L., Davis, D.A., Easterling, W.E 2000Continuing medical education: A new vision of the professional development of physiciansAcademic Medicine7511671172Google Scholar
  3. Blonski, J., Rahm, S 2003The relationship of residency performance to match status and US versus international graduate statusFamily Medicine35100104Google Scholar
  4. Blumberg, P 2003Multidimensional outcome considerations in assessing the efficacy of medical educational programsTeaching and Learning in Medicine15210214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borgiel, A.E., Williams, J.I., Bass, M.J 1989Quality of care in family practice: Does residency training make a difference?Canadian Medical Association Journal14010351043Google Scholar
  6. Brett, J.F., Atwater, L.E 2001360-degree feedback: Accuracy, reactions, and perceptions of usefulnessJournal of Applied Psychology86930942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bull, D.A., Stringham, J.C., Karwande, S.V., Neumayer, L.A 2001Effect of a resident self-study and presentation program on performance on the thoracic surgery in-training examinationAmerican Journal of Surgery181142144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carney, P.A., Nierenberg, D.W., Pipas, C.F 2004Educational epidemiology. Applying population-based design and analytic approaches to study medical educationJAMA29210441050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Case, S.M., Swanson, D.B 1993Validity of NBME part I and part II scores for selection of residents in orthopaedic surgery, dermatology, and preventive medicineAcademic Medicine68S51S56Google Scholar
  10. Cauffman, J.G., Forsyth, R.A., Clark, V.A 2003Randomized controlled trials of continuing medical education: What makes them most effectiveJournal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions22214221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Evans, R., Elwyn, G., Edwards, A 2004Review of instruments for peer assessment of physiciansBritish Medical Journal32812401243Google Scholar
  12. FitzGerald, J.D., Wenger, N.S 2003Didactic teaching conferences for IM residents: Who attends, and is attendance related to medical certifying examination scores?Academic Medicine788489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garibaldi, R.A., Subhiyah, R., Moore, M.E 2002The in-training examination in internal medicine: An analysis of resident performance over timeAnnals of Internal Medicine137505510Google Scholar
  14. Glick, T.H. 2005Evidence-guided education: Patients’ outcome data should influence our teaching prioritiesAcademic Medicine80147151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goroll, A.H., Sirio, C., Duffy, F.D 2004A new model for accreditation of residency programs in internal medicineAnnals of Internal Medicine140902909Google Scholar
  16. Grant, J 1999The incapacitating effects of competence: A critiqueAdvances in Health Sciences Education4271277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hassett, J.M., Nawotniak, R., Cummiskey, D 2002Maintaining outcomes in a surgical residency while complying with resident working hour regulationsSurgery132635641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kassebaum, D.G., Cutler, E.R., Eaglen, R.H 1997aThe influence of accreditation on educational change in U.S. medical schoolsAcademic Medicine7211271133Google Scholar
  19. Kassebaum, D.G., Eaglen, R.H., Cutler, E.R 1997bThe meaning and application of medical accreditation standardsAcademic Medicine72807818Google Scholar
  20. Kassebaum, D.G., Cutler, E.R., Eaglen, R.H 1998On the importance and validity of medical accreditation standardsAcademic Medicine73549564Google Scholar
  21. Klessig, J.M., Wolfsthal, S.D., Levine, M.A 2000A pilot survey study to define quality in residency educationAcademic Medicine757173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kwakwa, F., Biester, T.W., Ritchie, W.P 2002Career pathways of graduates of general surgery residency programs: An analysis of graduates from 1983 to 1990Journal of the American College of Surgery1944853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leach, D.C 2004A model for GME: Shifting from process to outcomes. A progress report from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical EducationMedical Education381214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Long, D.M 2000Competency-based residency training: the next advance in graduate medical educationAcademic Medicine7511781183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. MacNeily, A.E., Morales, A 2000Initial assessment of a new preparatory tool for board certification in urologyUrology55647651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mazmanian, P.E., Davis, D.A 2002Continuing medical eduation and the physician as a learnerJAMA28810571060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nevo, D. 1995School-Based Evaluation: A Dialogue for School ImprovementElsevier ScienceOxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  28. Norcini, J.J 1995Indicators of the educational effectiveness of subspecialty training programs in internal medicineAcademic Medicine70512516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Norcini, J.J., Kimball, H.R., Lipner, R.S 2000Certification and specialization: Do they matter in the outcome of acute myocardia infarction?Academic Medicine7511931198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Paolo, A.M., Bonaminio, G.A 2003Measuring outcomes of undergraduate medical education: Residency directors’ ratings of first-year residentsAcademic Medicine789095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Prystowsky, J.B., Bordage, G., Feinglass, J.M 2002Patient outcomes for segmental colon resection according to surgeon’s training, certification, and experienceSurgery132663672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sako, E.Y., Petrusa, E.R., Paukert, J.L 2002Factors influencing outcome of the American Board of Surgery certifying examination: An observational studyJournal of Surgical Research1057580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sharp, L.K., Bashook, P.G., Lipsky, M.S., Horowitz, S.D., Miller, S.H 2002Specialty board certification and clinical outcomes: The missing linkAcademic Medicine77534542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Silber, J.H., Kennedy, S.K., Even-Shoshan, O 2002Anesthesiologist board certification and patient outcomesAnesthesiology9610441052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Simpson, D.E., Golden, D.L., Rehm, J.M 1998The costs versus the perceived benefits of an LCME institutional self-studyAcademic Medicine7310091012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Spike, N.A., Hays, R.B 1999Analysis by training status of performance in the certification examination for Australian family doctorsMedical Education33612615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tamblyn, R., Abrahamowicz, M., Dauphinee, W.D 2002Association between licensure examination scores and practice in primary careJournal of the American Medical Association28830193026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ten Cate, O 2001What happens to the student? The neglected variable in educational outcome researchAdvances in Health Sciences Education68188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wright, S.M., Kern, D.E., Kolodner, K., Howard, D.M., Brancati, F.L 1998Attributes of excellent attending physician role modelsNew England Journal of Medicine33919861993CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Clinical Education, Center for Klinisk Uddannelse, Teillumbygningen, Section 5404 RigshospitaletCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations