Advertisement

Affective computing with primary and secondary emotions in a virtual human

  • Christian Becker-Asano
  • Ipke Wachsmuth
Article

Abstract

We introduce the WASABI ([W]ASABI [A]ffect [S]imulation for [A]gents with [B]elievable [I]nteractivity) Affect Simulation Architecture, in which a virtual human’s cognitive reasoning capabilities are combined with simulated embodiment to achieve the simulation of primary and secondary emotions. In modeling primary emotions we follow the idea of “Core Affect” in combination with a continuous progression of bodily feeling in three-dimensional emotion space (PAD space), that is subsequently categorized into discrete emotions. In humans, primary emotions are understood as onto-genetically earlier emotions, which directly influence facial expressions. Secondary emotions, in contrast, afford the ability to reason about current events in the light of experiences and expectations. By technically representing aspects of each secondary emotion’s connotative meaning in PAD space, we not only assure their mood-congruent elicitation, but also combine them with facial expressions, that are concurrently driven by primary emotions. Results of an empirical study suggest that human players in a card game scenario judge our virtual human MAX significantly older when secondary emotions are simulated in addition to primary ones.

Keywords

Affective computing Emotion modeling Primary and secondary emotions Aware emotions Emotion expression Embodied agent Virtual human Affect simulation architecture PAD emotion space Emotion dynamics BDI-based architecture Virtual reality Affective gaming 

References

  1. 1.
    André, E., Klesen, M., Gebhard, P., Allen, S., & Rist, T. (1999). Integrating models of personality and emotions into lifelike characters. In Proceedings international workshop on affect in interactions—Towards a new generation of interfaces (pp. 136–149). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Becker, C. (2003). Simulation der Emotionsdynamik eines künstlichen humanoiden Agenten. Master’s thesis, University of Bielefeld.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Becker, C., Kopp, S., & Wachsmuth, I. (2004). Simulating the emotion dynamics of a multimodal conversational agent. In Affective Dialogue Systems (pp. 154–165). Springer, LNAI 3068.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Becker, C., Kopp, S., & Wachsmuth, I. (2007). Why emotions should be integrated into conversational agents. In T. Nishida (Ed.), Conversational Informatics: An engineering approach, chap. 3 (pp. 49–68). Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Becker, C., Prendinger, H., Ishizuka, M., & Wachsmuth, I. (2005). Evaluating affective feedback of the 3D agent max in a competitive cards game. In Affective computing and intelligent interaction (pp. 466–473). Springer, LNCS 3784.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Becker-Asano, C. (2008). WASABI: Affect simulation for agents with believable interactivity. PhD thesis, Faculty of Technology, University of Bielefeld, IOS Press (DISKI 319).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Becker-Asano, C., Kopp, S., Pfeiffer-Leßmann, N., & Wachsmuth, I. (2008). Virtual humans growing up: From primary toward secondary emotions. KI Zeitschift (German Journal of Artificial Intelligence), 1, 23–27.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Becker-Asano, C., & Wachsmuth, I. (2008). Affect simulation with primary and secondary emotions. In H. Prendinger, J. Lester, & M. Ishizuka (Eds.), Intelligent virtual agents (IVA 08) (pp. 15–28). Springer, LNAI 5208.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Breazeal C. (2003) Emotion and sociable humanoid robots. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 59: 119–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cassell J., Sullivan J., Prevost S., Churchill E. (2000) Embodied conversational agents. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Damasio, A. (1994). Descartes’ error, emotion reason and the human brain. Grosset/Putnam.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Damasio, A. (2003). Looking for Spinoza: Joy, sorrow, and the feeling brain. Harcourt.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    de Rosis, F., Pelachaud, C., Poggi, I., Carofiglio, V., & de Carolis, B. (2003). From Greta’s mind to her face: modelling the dynamics of affective states in a conversational embodied agent. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies Special Issue on “Applications of Affective Computing in HCI”, 59, 81–118.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ekman, P. (1999). Facial expressions. In Handbook of cognition and emotion, chap. 16 (pp. 301–320). John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ekman P., Friesen W., Ancoli S. (1980) Facial sings of emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 29: 1125–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    El-Nasr M.S., Yen J., Ioerger T.R. (2000) FLAME—Fuzzy logic adaptive model of emotions. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 3(3): 219–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Feldman Barrett, L. (2005). Feeling is perceiving: Core affect and conceptualization in the experience of emotion. In The unconscious in emotion, chap. 11 (pp. 255–284). Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gebhard, P. (2005). ALMA—A layered model of affect. In Autonomous agents & multi agent systems (pp. 29–36). New York: ACM.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gebhard, P., Klesen, M., & Rist, T. (2004). Coloring multi-character conversations through the expression of emotions. In Affective dialogue systems (pp. 128–141). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gehm, T. L., & Scherer, K. R. (1988). Factors determining the dimensions of subjective emotional space. In K. R. Scherer (Ed.), Facets of emotion, chap 5. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Holodynski, M., & Friedlmeier, W. (2005). Development of emotions and emotion regulation. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Itoh, K., Miwa, H., Nukariya, Y., Zecca, M., Takanobu, H., Roccella, S., et al. (2006). Behavior generation of humanoid robots depending on mood. In Proceedings of the 9th international conference on intelligent autonomous systems (IAS-9) (pp. 965–972). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    LeDoux J. (1996) The emotional brain. Simon & Schuster, TouchstoneGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marinier, R., & Laird, J. (2004). Toward a comprehensive computational model of emotions and feelings. In International conference on cognitive modeling. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marinier, R. P., & Laird, J. E. (2007). Computational modeling of mood and feeling from emotion. In Proceedings of the 29th meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Nashville (pp. 461–466).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marsella, S., & Gratch, J. (2006). EMA: A computational model of appraisal dynamics. In R. Trappi (Ed.), Cybernetics and systems 2006 (Vol. 2, pp. 601–606). Vienna: Austrian Society for Cybernetic Studies.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mehrabian A. (1996) Analysis of the big-five personality factors in terms of the PAD temperament model. Australian Journal of Psychology 48: 86–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Neumann R., Seibt B., Strack F. (2001) The influence of mood on the intensity of emotional responses: Disentangling feeling and knowing. Cognition & Emotion 15: 725–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ochs, M., Devooght, K., Sadek, D., & Pelachaud, C. (2006). A computational model of capability-based emotion elicitation for rational agent. In Workshop Emotion and Computing—German conference on artificial intelligence (KI). Bremen, Germany.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ortony A., Clore G.L., Collins A. (1988) The cognitive structure of emotions. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ortony, A., Norman, D., & Revelle, W. (2005). Affect and proto-affect in effective functioning. In J. Fellous & M. Arbib (Eds.), Who needs emotions: The brain meets the machine (pp. 173–202). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Osgood, C. E., Suci, G. J., & Tannenbaum, P. H. (1957). The measurement of meaning. University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pelachaud, C., & Bilvi, M. (2003). Computational model of believable conversational agents. In M.-P. Huget (Ed.), Communications in multiagent systems. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Picard R.W. (1997) Affective computing. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Prendinger H., Becker C., Ishizuka M. (2006) A study in users’ physiological response to an empathic interface agent. International Journal of Humanoid Robotics 3(3): 371–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Prendinger, H., & Ishizuka, M. (2004). Life-like characters: Tools, affective functions, and applications (Cognitive Technologies). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rao, A., & Georgeff, M. (1991). Modeling Rational Agents within a BDI-architecture. In J. Allen, R. Fikes & E. Sandewall (Eds.), Proceedings of the international conference on principles of knowledge representation and planning (pp. 473–484). San Mateo, CA, USA: Morgan Kaufmann publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Russell J.A., Feldmann Barrett L. (1999) Core affect, prototypical emotional episodes, and other things called emotion: Dissecting the elephant. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76(5): 805–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Russell J.A., Mehrabian A. (1977) Evidence for a three-factor theory of emotions. Journal of Research in Personality 11(11): 273–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Scherer K.R. (1984) On the nature and function of emotion: A component process approach. In: Scherer K., Ekman P. (eds) Approaches to emotion. Lawrence Erlbaum, NJ, pp 293–317Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Scherer, K. R. (2001). Appraisal considered as a process of multilevel sequential checking. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion, chap. 5. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Scherer, K. R. (2005). Unconscious processes in emotion: The bulk of the iceberg. In P. Niedenthal, L. Feldman Barrett, & P. Winkielman (Eds.), The unconscious in emotion, chap. 13. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sloman, A., Chrisley, R., & Scheutz, M. (2005). The architectural basis of affective states and processes. In Who needs emotions? Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wundt, W. (1922/1863). Vorlesung über die Menschen- und Tierseele. Leipzig: Voss VerlagGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of TechnologyUniversity of BielefeldBielefeldGermany
  2. 2.ATRKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations