Gossip-based aggregation of trust in decentralized reputation systems
- First Online:
- 175 Downloads
Decentralized Reputation Systems have recently emerged as a prominent method of establishing trust among self-interested agents in online environments. A key issue is the efficient aggregation of data in the system; several approaches have been proposed, but they are plagued by major shortcomings. We put forward a novel, decentralized data management scheme grounded in gossip-based algorithms. Rumor mongering is known to possess algorithmic advantages, and indeed, our framework inherits many of their salient features: scalability, robustness, a global perspective, and simplicity. We demonstrate that our scheme motivates agents to maintain a very high reputation, by showing that the higher an agent’s reputation is above the threshold set by its peers, the more transactions it would be able to complete within a certain time unit. We analyze the relation between the amount by which an agent’s average reputation exceeds the threshold and the time required to close a deal. This analysis is carried out both theoretically, and empirically through a simulation system called GossipTrustSim. Finally, we show that our approach is inherently impervious to certain kinds of attacks.
KeywordsReputation systems Trust Gossip Manipulation Game theory
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Abdul-Rahman, A., & Hailes, S. (2000). Supporting trust in virtual communities. In HICSS’00: Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Vol. 6, p. 6007). Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. ISBN: 0-7695-0493-0.Google Scholar
- Aberer, K. (2001). P-grid: A self-organizing access structure for P2P information systems. In C. Batini, F. Giunchiglia, P. Giorgini, & M. Mecella (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Coopersative Information Systems (CoopIS 2001), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 2172, pp. 179–194). Springer-Verlag, London, UK. http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/aberer01grid.html.
- Aberer, K., & Despotovic, Z. (2001). Managing trust in a peer-2-peer information system. In Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (pp. 310–317).Google Scholar
- Amar, L., Barak, A., Levy, E., & Okun, M. (2007). An on-line algorithm for fair-share node allocations in a cluster. In CCGRID’07: Proceedings of the Seventh IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid (pp. 83–91). Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CCGRID.2007.22. ISBN: 0-7695-2833-3.
- Awerbuch B., & Kleinberg, R. D. (2005). Competitive collaborative learning. In COLT: Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Learning Theory, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.Google Scholar
- Axelrod, R. (1984). The evolution of cooperation. Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Barak, A., Guday, S., & Wheeler, R. G. (1993). The MOSIX distributed operating system, load balancing for UNIX. Lecture notes in computer science (LNCS) (Vol. 672). Berlin; New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Cheng, A., & Friedman, E. (2005). Sybilproof reputation mechanisms. In P2PECON’05: Proceeding of the 2005 ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Economics of Peer-to-peer Systems (pp. 128–132). New York, NY, USA: ACM.Google Scholar
- Cornelli, F., Damiani, E., De Capitani di Vimercati, S., Paraboschi, S., & Samarati, P. (2002). Choosing reputable servants in a P2P network. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on the World Wide Web (pp. 376–386).Google Scholar
- Cybenko, G., & Jiang, G. (1999). Matching conflicts: Functional validation of agents. In Proceedings of the AAAI Workshop on Agent Conflicts (pp. 14–19).Google Scholar
- Damiani, E., De Capitani di Vimercati, S., Paraboschi, S., Samarati, P., & Violante, F. (2002). A reputation-based approach for choosing reliable resources in peer-to-peer networks. In CCS’02: Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, Washington, DC (pp. 207–216). New York: ACM. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/586110.586138. ISBN: 1-58113-612-9.
- Dellarocas, C. (2000). Immunizing online reputation reporting systems against unfair ratings and discriminatory behavior. In EC’00: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce (pp. 150–157). New York: ACM. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/352871.352889. ISBN: 1581132727.
- Dellarocas, C. (2001). Analyzing the economic efficiency of eBay-like online reputation mechanisms. In ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce (EC-01), Tampa, Florida.Google Scholar
- Demers, A., Greene, D., Hauser, C., Irish, W., Larson, J., Shenker, S., et al. (1987). Epidemic algorithms for replicated database maintenance. In PODC’87: Proceedings of the Sixth Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (pp. 1–12). New York: ACM. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/41840.41841. ISBN: 0-89791-239-4.
- Dewan, P. (2004). Peer-to-peer reputations. In Proceedings of the 18th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium.Google Scholar
- Fudenberg, D., & Levine, D. K. (1995). Reputation and equilibrium selection in games with a patient player. Levine’s Working Paper Archive 103, UCLA Department of Economics, January. http://ideas.repec.org/p/cla/levarc/103.html.
- Jelasity, M., Montresor, A., & Babaoglu, O. (2003). Towards secure epidemics: Detection and removal of malicious peers in epidemic-style protocols. Technical Report UBLCS-2003-14, Department of Computer Science, University of Bologna.Google Scholar
- Kandori, M. (1992). Social norms and community enforcement. The Review of Economic Studies, pp. 63–80.Google Scholar
- Kempe, D., Dobra, A., & Gehrke, J. (2003).Gossip-based computation of aggregate information. In FOCS’03: Proceedings of the 44th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (p. 482). Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. ISBN: 0-7695-2040-5.Google Scholar
- Keyani, P., Larson, B., & Senthil, M. (2002). Peer pressure: Distributed recovery from attacks in peer-to-peer systems. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Computing (pp. 306–320).Google Scholar
- Kreps, D. M., & Wilson, R. (1982, August). Reputation and imperfect information. Journal of Economic Theory, 305–15.Google Scholar
- Leitao, J., Pereira, J., & Rodrigues, L. (2007). Epidemic broadcast trees. In Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, 10–12 October 2007 (pp. 301–310). Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.Google Scholar
- Marsh, S. P. (1994). Formalising trust as a computational concept. PhD thesis, University of Stirling.Google Scholar
- Pandurangan, G., Raghavan, P., & Upfal, E. (2001). Building low diameter P2P networks. In Proceedings of the 42nd Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (pp. 492–499).Google Scholar
- Resnick, P., & Zeckhauser, R. (2002). Trust among strangers in internet transactions: Empirical analysis of eBay’s reputation system. Advances in Applied Microeconomics, 11.Google Scholar
- Resnick, P., & Zeckhauser, R. J. (2003). Eliciting honest feedback in electronic markets. KSG Working Paper Series RWP02-039.Google Scholar
- Srivatsa, M., Xiong, L., & Liu, L. (2005). TrustGuard: Countering vulnerabilities in reputation management for decentralized overlay networks. In WWW’05: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on World Wide Web, Chiba, Japan (pp. 422-431). New York: ACM. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1060745.1060808. ISBN:1-59593-046-9.
- Xiong, L., & Liu, L. (2003). A reputation-based trust model for peer-to-peer ecommerce communities [Extended Abstract]. In EC’03: Proceedings of the 4th ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce, San Diego, CA (pp. 228–229). New York: ACM. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/779928.779972. ISBN: 1-58113-679-X.