Modeling conversation policies using permissions and obligations
- 107 Downloads
Both conversation specifications and policies are required to facilitate effective agent communication. Specifications provide the order in which speech acts can occur in a meaningful conversation, whereas policies restrict the specifications that can be used in a certain conversation based on the sender, receiver, messages exchanged thus far, content, and other context. We propose that positive/negative permissions and obligations be used to model conversation specifications and policies. We also propose the use of ontologies to categorize speech acts such that high level policies can be defined without going into specifics of the speech acts. This approach is independent of the syntax and semantics of the communication language and can be used for different agent communication languages. Our policy based framework can help in agent communication in three ways: (i) to filter inappropriate messages, (ii) to help an agent to decide which speech act to use next, and (iii) to prevent an agent from sending inappropriate messages. Our work differs from most existing research on communication policies because it is not tightly coupled to any domain information such as the mental states of agents or specific communicative acts. Contributions of this work include: (i) an extensible framework that is applicable to varied domain knowledge and different agent communication languages, and (ii) the declarative representation of conversation specifications and policies in terms of permitted and obligated speech acts.
KeywordsAgent communication Conversation policy Conversation specifications Permissions Obligations Speech act ontology Ontology languages
- 1.Broersen, J., Dastani, M., Hulstijn, J., Huang, Z., & L. van der Torre. (2001). The BOID architecture conflicts between beliefs, obligations, intentions and desire. In fifth international conference on autonomous agents (pp. 9–16).Google Scholar
- 2.Cable News Network (CNN) (2004). Probe under way on medicare cost. http://www.cnn.com/ 2004/ALLPOLITICS/ 03/17/medicare.investigation/
- 5.Dignum, F. (1997). Social interactions of autonomous agents: Private and global views on In ModelAge Workshop (pp. 103–122).Google Scholar
- 6.Dignum, F., Broersen, J., Dignum, V., & Meyer J.-J. (2004). Meeting the deadline: Why, when, and how. In Third conference on formal aspects of agent-based systems (FAABS III) (April 26–27) Greenbelt, Maryland, USA.Google Scholar
- 7.Dignum F. and Weigand H. (1995). Communication and deontic logic. In: Wieringa, R. and Feenstra, R. (eds) Information systems, correctness and reusability., pp 242–260. World Scientific, Singapore Google Scholar
- 8.Finin, T., Fritzson, R., McKay, D., & McEntire, R. (1994). A semantics approach for kqml – a purpose communication language for software agents. In third international conference on and knowledge management (CIKM’94).Google Scholar
- 9.FIPA. Foundation for intelligent physical agents specifications. http://www.fipa.org.
- 10.Flores, R. A., & Kremer, R. C. (2002). A model for flexible composition of conversations: How a simple conversation got so complicated. In M. P. Huget, F. Dignum & J. L. Koning (Eds.), Third workshop on agent communication languages and conversation policies, First international joint conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems (AAMAS 2002). Bologna, Italy, July 15–19. 2002.Google Scholar
- 11.Fornara, N., & Colombetti, M. (2003) Defining interaction protocols using a commitment-based agent communication language. In Second international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems (pp. 520–527). Melbourne, Australia. ACM Press.Google Scholar
- 12.GreavesM. Holmback H. and Bradshaw J. (1999). What is a conversation policy?. In: Dignum, F. and Greaves, M. (eds) Workshop on specifying and implementing conversation policies, Autonomous Agents (AA 1999)., pp 118–131. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg Germany Google Scholar
- 13.Kagal, L. (2004). A policy-based approach to governing autonomous behavior in distributed environments. PhD Dissertation, September.Google Scholar
- 14.Kagal, L., Finin, T., & Joshi, A. (2003). A policy based approach to security for the semantic web. In second international semantic web conference (ISWC2003). September 2003.Google Scholar
- 15.Kagal, L., Finin, T., & Joshi, A. (2003). A policy language for pervasive systems. In IEEE international workshop on policies for distributed systems and networks, Lake, Italy, June 2003.Google Scholar
- 17.Kollingbaum, M. J., & Norman, T. J. (2003). Norm consistency in practical reasoning agents. In Proceedings of international workshop on programming multiagent systems.Google Scholar
- 18.Labrou, Y., & Finin, T. (1994). A semantics approach for kqml – a general purpose language for software agents. In Third international conference on information and knowledge management (CIKM’94), November 1994.Google Scholar
- 19.Lupu, E.C., & Sloman, M. (1996). Towards a role based framework for distributed systems management. Journal of Networks and Systemss Management. Plenum Press.Google Scholar
- 21.Mallya, A.U., Yolum, P., & Singh, M.P. (2003). Resolving commitments among autonomous agents. In Proceedings of International workshop on agent communication languages and conversation policies (ACL).Google Scholar
- 23.Phillips, L.R., & Link, H.E. (2000). The role of conversation policy in carrying out agent In F. Dignum & M. Greaves, (Eds.), Issues in agent communication, volume 1916 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer.Google Scholar
- 24.Pitt, J., & Mamdani, A. (1999). A protocol-based semantics for an agent communication language. In Proceedings of the international joint conf. on artificial intelligence IJCAI (pp. 486–491).Google Scholar
- 25.Singh, M.P. (1991). Towards a formal theory of communication for multiagent systems. In Proceedings of Internationa Joint Conference of Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI’91), Sydney, Australia, August.Google Scholar
- 27.Smith, I. A., & Cohen, P.R. (1996). Toward a semantics for an agent communication language based on speech acts. In H. Shrobe & T. Senator (Eds.), Proceedings of the thirteenth national conference on artificial intelligence, (vol. 2, p. 24–31). Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press.Google Scholar
- 28.Smith, I.A., Cohen, P.R., Bradshaw, J.M., Greaves, M., & Holmback, H. (1998). Designing conversation policies using joint intention theory. In Proceedings of third international conference on multi-agent systems (ICMAS98).Google Scholar
- 30.W3C. Resource Description Framework. Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model and Syntax Specification, http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-rdf-syntax-19990222/, 1999.
- 31.W3C. Owl web ontology language. http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/WebOnt/, 2004.
- 32.Yang, G., & Kifer, M. (2000). FLORA: Implementing an efficient DOOD system using a tabling logic engine. In Proceedings of Computational Logic—CL-2000, number 1861 in Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (pp. 1078–1093). Springer-verlag.Google Scholar
- 34.Zou, Y., Finin, T., & Chen H. (2004). F-OWL: An inference engine for the semantic web, vol. 3228 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer-verlag, November 2004. In Proceedings of the third international workshop (FAABS), April 16–18, 2004, Greenbelt, MD, USA.Google Scholar