Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 119–154 | Cite as

An integrated trust and reputation model for open multi-agent systems

  • Trung Dong Huynh
  • Nicholas R. Jennings
  • Nigel R. Shadbolt


Trust and reputation are central to effective interactions in open multi-agent systems (MAS) in which agents, that are owned by a variety of stakeholders, continuously enter and leave the system. This openness means existing trust and reputation models cannot readily be used since their performance suffers when there are various (unforseen) changes in the environment. To this end, this paper presents FIRE, a trust and reputation model that integrates a number of information sources to produce a comprehensive assessment of an agent’s likely performance in open systems. Specifically, FIRE incorporates interaction trust, role-based trust, witness reputation, and certified reputation to provide trust metrics in most circumstances. FIRE is empirically evaluated and is shown to help agents gain better utility (by effectively selecting appropriate interaction partners) than our benchmarks in a variety of agent populations. It is also shown that FIRE is able to effectively respond to changes that occur in an agent’s environment.


Trust Reputation Multi-agent systems 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abdul-Rahman, A., & Hailes, S. (2000). Supporting trust in virtual communities. In Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii international conference on system sciences. Vol. 6., IEEE Computer Society Press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amazon Site. ( World Wide Web.
  3. 3.
    Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J., & Lassila, O. (2001). The semantic web. Scientific American.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carbo J., Molina J.M. and Davila J. (2003). Trust management through fuzzy reputation. International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems 12(1): 135–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Castelfranchi, C., & Falcone, R. (2001). Social trust: A cognitive approach. In C. Castelfranchi, & Y. Tan, (Eds.), Trust and deception in virtual societies. (pp. 55–90). Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cohen, P. R. (1995). Empirical methods for artificial intelligence. The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Conte, R., & Paolucci, M. (2002). Reputation in artificial societies. Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dasgupta, P. (2000). Trust as a Commodity. In D. Gambetta (Ed.), Trust: Making and breaking cooperative relations. Electronic edn. Department of Sociology, University of Oxford 49–72.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    DeGroot, M. H., & Schervish, M. J. (2002). Probability and statistics. Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    eBay Site. ( World Wide Web.
  11. 11.
    Foster I., Kesselman C. and Tuecke S. (2001). The anatomy of the grid: enabling scalable virtual organizations. The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications 15(3): 200–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gambetta, D. (2000). Trust: Making and breaking cooperative relations. Electronic edn. Department of Sociology, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grandison, T., & Sloman, M. (2000). A survey of trust in internet applications. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 3(4).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huynh, T. D., Jennings, N. R., & Shadbolt, N. R. (2004a). Developing an integrated trust and reputation model for open multi-agent systems. In R. Falcone, S. Barber, J. Sabater, & M. Singh, (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th international workshop on trust in agent societies (pp. 65–74).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huynh, T. D., Jennings, N. R., & Shadbolt, N. R. (2004b). FIRE: An integrated trust and reputation model for open multi-agent systems. In Proceedings of the 16th European conference on artificial intelligence (ECAI) (pp. 18–22).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jennings N. R. (2001). An agent-based approach for building complex software systems. Communications of the ACM 44(4): 35–41MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jurca R. and Faltings B. (2003). Towards incentive-compatible reputation management. In: Falcone, R., Barber, S., Korba, L. and Singh, M. (eds) Trust, reputation and security: theories and practice. Vol. 2631 of Lecture Notes in AI, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 138–147Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaelbling L. P., Littman M. L. and Moore A. W. (1996). Reinforcement learning: A survey. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 4: 237–285Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marsh, S. P. (1994). Formalising trust as a computational concept, PhD thesis, University of Stirling.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mass Y. and Shehory O. (2001). Distributed trust in open multi-agent systems. In: Falcone, R., Singh, M. and Tan, Y. (eds) Trust in cyber-societies, pp 159–173. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maximilien E. M. and Singh M. P. (2002). Reputation and endorsement for web services. ACM SIGEcom Exchanges 3(1): 24–31Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mui, L., Mohtashemi, M., & Halberstadt, A. (2002). A computational model of trust and reputation. In Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii international conference on system science. (pp. 280–287).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ooi, B. C., Liau, C. Y., & Tan, K. L. (2003). Managing trust in peer-to-peer systems using reputation-based techniques. In Proceedings of the 4th international conference in advances in web-age information management (WAIM 2003). Vol. 2762 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2–12 Chengdu, China, August 17–19.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ramchurn S. D., Huynh T. D. and Jennings N. R. (2004). Trust in multi-agent systems. The Knowledge Engineering Review 19(1): 1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Resnick, P., & Zeckhauser, R. (2002). Trust among strangers in internet transactions: Empirical analysis of eBay’s reputation system. In M. R. Baye, (Ed.), The economics of the internet and e-commerce. Vol. 11 of Advances in Applied Microeconomics. Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sabater, J. (2003). Trust and Reputation for Agent Societies. PhD thesis, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sabater, J., & Sierra, C. (2001). REGRET: A reputation model for gregarious societies. In Fourth workshop on deception fraud and trust in agent societies (pp. 61–70). Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Saha D. and Mukherjee A. (2003). Pervasive computing: A paradigm for the 21st century. IEEE Computer 36(3): 25–31Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Salton G. and McGill M. (1983). An introduction to modern information retrieval. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schillo M., Rovatsos M. and Funk P. (2000). Using trust for detecting deceitful agents in artificial societies. Special Issue of the Applied Artificial Intelligence Journal on “Deception, Fraud and Trust in Agent Societies” 14(8): 825–848Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sen, S., & Sajja, N. (2002). Robustness of reputation-based trust: Boolean case. In Proceedings of the first intenational joint conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems. Vol. 1. (pp. 288–293).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Skogsrud H., Benatallah B. and Casati F. (2003). Model-driven trust negotiation for web services. IEEE Internet Computing 7(6): 45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Steinmetz, R., & Wehrle, K., (Eds.) (2005). Peer-to-peer systems and applications. Vol. 3485 of Lecture Notes on Computer Science, Springer Publishing.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Teacy, W. T. L., Patel, J., Jennings, N. R., & Luck, M. (2005). Coping with inaccurate reputation sources: Experimental analysis of a probabilistic trust model. In proceedings of fourth international joint conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems (pp. 997–1004).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Uszok, A., Bradshaw, J. M., & Jeffers, R. (2004). KAoS: A policy and domain services framework for grid computing and semantic web services. In C. Jensen, S. Poslad, & T. Dimitrakos, (Eds.), Trust management: Second international conference, iTrust 2004, Oxford, UK, March 29–April 1, 2004. Proceedings. Vol. 2995 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science., (pp. 16–26). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (1994). Social network analysis : Methods and applications. Volume 8 of Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yolum, P., & Singh, M. P. (2004). Service graphs for building trust. In International conference on cooperative information systems (CoopIS). Vol. 3290 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (pp. 509–525).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yu, B., & Singh, M. P. (2002). An evidential model of distributed reputation management. In Proceedings of first international joint conference on autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. Vol. 1. (pp. 294–301). ACM Press.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yu, B., & Singh, M. P. (2003). Searching social networks. In Proceedings of the second international joint conference on autonomous agents and multiAgent systems (AAMAS) (pp. 65–72). ACM Press.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zacharia G. and Maes P. (2000). Trust management through reputation mechanisms. Applied Artificial Intelligence 14(9): 881–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zimmermann P. R. (1995). The official PGP user’s guide. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Trung Dong Huynh
    • 1
  • Nicholas R. Jennings
    • 1
  • Nigel R. Shadbolt
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Electronics and Computer ScienceUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations