Advertisement

Bird species richness in artificial plantations and natural forests in a North African agroforestry system: assessment and implications

  • S. Hanane
  • S. I. Cherkaoui
  • N. Magri
  • M. Yassin
Article

Abstract

Watershed tree plantations in Morocco are expanding under the National Watershed Management Plan and thus their value for native fauna and agroforestry system dynamics requires investigation. Using generalized linear mixed models, we assessed the relative value of artificial habitats—olive and eucalypt plantations—over four seasonal periods, by comparing their avifauna richness to those of natural habitats—Thuya forests. Bird species richness depended on both habitat type and season. Our results showed that natural Thuya forests supported higher bird diversity than both olive and eucalypt plantations. Moreover, bird diversity was higher in eucalyptus plantations compared to olive plantations during the winter period, while the opposite trend was observed in autumn. A principal component analysis also revealed a significant positive effect of shrub layer complexity (PC1) in all seasons, habitat artificiality (PC3) in spring, breeding season, and autumn, and tree size (PC2) during winter and autumn. Overall, our findings stress that, in our study area, artificial plantations do not have the same ecological value as the original habitat. We therefore advise restoring native forests rather than reforesting eucalypt species. Research programs should continue in order to assess the impact of conservation actions on biodiversity and determine how this agroforestry system would change under the increasingly detrimental effects of drought.

Keywords

Birds Tetraclinis articulata Olea europaea Eucalyptus sp. Seasonality Morocco 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Abderrahim for helping during the field work. We also thank two anonymous reviewers and the Editor of Agroforestry Systems Journal for their comments and advice. We are grateful to Liz AD Campbell (Atlas Golden Wolf Project) for English revision.

Funding

This study was supported by the Forest Research Center, High Commission for Water, Forests and Combating Desertification Control, Morocco.

Supplementary material

10457_2018_281_MOESM1_ESM.doc (82 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 82 kb)

References

  1. Anjos L, Collins DC, Holt RD, Volpato GH, Mendonça LB, Lopes EV, Boçon R, Bisheimer MV, Serafini PP, Carvalho J (2011) Bird species abundance—occupancy patterns and sensitivity to forest fragmentation: implications for conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Biol Conserv 144:2213–2222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B, Walker S (2014) lme4: linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. R package version 1.1-7. Retrieved 20 September 2017 from http://cran.r-project.org/package=lme4
  3. Bereczki K, Hajdu K, Báldi A (2015) Effects of forest edge on pest control service provided by birds in fragmented temperate forests. Acta Zool Hung 61:289–304Google Scholar
  4. Bibby CJ, Burgess ND, Hill DA, Mustoe SH (2000) Bird census techniques, 2nd edn. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. BirdLife International (2015) Streptopelia turtur. The IUCN red list for birds. http://www.birdlife.org/. Accessed 20 July 2017
  6. Bonthoux S, Balent G (2012) Point count duration: five minutes are usually sufficient to model the distribution of bird species and to study the structure of communities for a French landscape. J Ornithol 153:491–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bretz F, Hothorn T, Westfall P (2016) Multiple comparisons using R. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  8. Bro E, Mayot P, Corda E, Reitz F (2004) Impact of habitat management on grey partridge populations: assessing wildlife cover using a multisite BACI experiment. J Appl Ecol 41:846–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calviño-Cancela M (2013) Effectiveness of eucalypt plantations as a surrogate habitat for birds. For Ecol Manag 310:692–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calviño-Cancela M, Neumann M (2015) Ecological integration of eucalypts in Europe: interactions with flower-visiting birds. For Ecol Manag 358:174–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Calviño-Cancela M, Rubido-Bará M, Van Etten EJB (2012) Do eucalypt plantations provide habitat for native forest biodiversity? For Ecol Manag 270:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cambardella CA, Moorman TV, Novak JM, Parkin TB, Karlen DL, Turco RF, Konopka AE (1994) Field-scale variability of soil properties in Central Iowa soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:1501–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cherkaoui I, Selmi S, Boukhriss J, Hamid R-I, Dakki M (2009) Factors affecting bird richness in a fragmented cork oak forest in Morocco. Acta Oecol 35:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conner MM, Saunders WC, Bouwes N, Jordan C (2016) Evaluating impacts using a BACI design, ratios, and a Bayesian approach with a focus on restoration. Environ Monit Assess 188:555CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. D’Amato AW, Orwig DA, Foster DR (2009) Understory vegetation in old-growth and second-growth Tsuga canadensis forests in western Massachusetts. For Ecol Manag 257:1043–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de la Hera I, Arizaga J, Galarza A (2013) Exotic tree plantations and avian conservation in northern Iberia: a view from a nest-box monitoring study. Anim Biodivers Conserv 36:153–163Google Scholar
  17. de Lucas M, Janss GFE, Ferrer M (2005) A bird and small mammal BACI and IG design studies in a wind farm in Malpica (Spain). Biodivers Conserv 14(13):3289–3303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Diaz L (2006) Influences of forest type and forest structure on bird communities in oak and pine woodlands in Spain. For Ecol Manag 223:54–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dormann CF (2007) Effects of incorporating spatial autocorrelation into the analysis of species distribution data. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 16:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Farwig N, Sajita N, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) Conservation value of forest plantations for bird communities in western Kenya. For Ecol Manag 255(11):3885–3892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Felton A, Andersson E, Ventorp D, Lindbladh M (2011) A comparison of avian diversity in spruce monocultures and spruce-birch polycultures in Southern Sweden. Silva Fenn 45:1143–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fontúrbel FE, Candia AB, Gabriel B, Castano-Villa J (2016) Are abandoned eucalyptus plantations avifauna-friendly? A case study in the Valdivian rainforest. Rev Mex Biodivers 87:1402–1406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Foster MS (2007) The potential of fruit trees to enhance converted habitats for migrating birds in southern Mexico. Bird Conserv Int 17:45–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gargallo G, Barriocanal C, Castany J, Clarabuch O, Escandell R, Lopezlborra G, Rguibi-idriss H, Robson D, Suarez M (2011). Spring migration in the western Mediterranean and NW Africa the Piccole Isole project. Monografies Del Museu de Ciencies Naturals-Barcelona 6: 17–279, 281–359, 363Google Scholar
  25. Gayton DV (2003) British Columbia grasslands: monitoring vegetation change. FORREX Series 7. FORREX—Forest Research Extension Partnership, KamloopsGoogle Scholar
  26. Geldmann J, Barnes M, Coad L, Craigie ID, Hockings M, Burgess ND (2013) Effectiveness of terrestrial protected areas in reducing habitat loss and population declines. Biol Cons 161:230–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goovaerts P (1998) Geostatistical tools for characterizing the spatial variability of microbiological and physicochemical soil properties. Biol Fert Soils 27:315–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haggerty TM (1998) Vegetation structure of Bachman’s sparrow breeding habitat and its relationship to home range. J Field Ornithol 69(1):45–50Google Scholar
  29. Hama F, Gargallo G, Benhoussa A, Zerdouk S, Rguibi Idrissi H (2013) Autumn body condition of Palaearctic trans-Saharan migrant passerines at an oasis in southeast Morocco. Ringing Migr 28(2):77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hanane S (2013) Importance des reboisements en pins pour les oiseaux forestiers nicheurs: cas du Pigeon ramier dans une plantation de pin d’Alep au Moyen-Atlas Central, Maroc. Forêt Méditerranéenne XXXIV 3:209–214Google Scholar
  31. Hanane S (2014a) Les périmètres irrigués du Maroc: une aubaine pour deux espèces d’oiseaux migrateurs, la Tourterelle des bois (Streptopelia turtur) et la Caille des blés (Coturnix coturnix). Rev Ecol-Terre Vie 69(3–4):225–233Google Scholar
  32. Hanane S (2014b) Effects of human disturbance on nest placement of the Woodpigeon (Columba palumbus): a case study from the Middle Atlas, Morocco. Integr Zool 9:349–359CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hanane S (2015) Nest-niche differentiation in two sympatric Streptopelia species from a North African agricultural area: the role of human presence. Ecol Res 30(4):573–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hanane S (2016) Effects of orchard type and breeding period on Turtle Dove nest density in irrigated agroecosystems. Bird Study 63:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hanane S (2017) The European Turtle-Dove Streptopelia turtur in Northwest Africa: a review of current knowledge and priorities for future research. Ardeola 64(2):273–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hanane S, Baamal L (2011) Are Moroccan fruit orchards suitable breeding habitats for Turtle Doves Streptopelia turtur? Bird Study 58:57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hanane S, Yassin M (2017) Nest-niche differentiation in two sympatric columbid species from a Mediterranean Tetraclinis woodland: considerations for forest management. Acta Oecol 78:47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Haut-Commissariat aux Eaux et Forêts et à la Lutte Contre la Désertification (HCEFLCD) (2006) SAPROF for Watershed Management Project in the Kingdom of Morocco. Final report. Japan Bank for International Cooperation, p 385Google Scholar
  39. Herbers JR, Serrouya R, Maxcy KA (2004) Effects of elevation and forest cover on winter birds in mature forest ecosystems of southern British Columbia. Can J Zool 82(11):1720–1730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jacoboski LI, Mendonça-Lima A, Hartz SM (2016) Structure of birds communities in eucalyptus plantations: nestedness as a pattern on species distribution. Br J Biol 76:583–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. John JRM, Kabigumila JDL (2011) The use of bird species richness and abundance indices to assess the conservation value of exotic Eucalyptus plantations. Ostrich 82:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Khattabi A (1999) Socio-economic importance of eucalyptus plantations in Morocco. Global concerns for forest resource utilization. Springer, Berlin, pp 73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kleijn D, Cherkaoui I, Goedhart PW, van der Hout J, Lammersma D (2014) Waterbirds increase more rapidly in Ramsar-designated wetlands than in unprotected wetlands. J Appl Ecol 51:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kristin A, Valera F, Hoi H, Hoi C (1999) Foraging assemblages of birds in different olive plantations during the second half of March. Folia Oecol 26:231–237Google Scholar
  45. Lahrouni M, El Abbassi A, El Messoussi S (2015) Olive tree growth dynamics under semi-arid conditions of AlHaouz region in Morocco. J Mater Environ Sci 6(9):2428–2436Google Scholar
  46. Laiolo P (2002) Effects of habitat structure, floral composition and diversity on a forest bird community in north-western Italy. Folia Zool 51:121–128Google Scholar
  47. Legendre P, Legendre L (1998) Numerical ecology. Elsevier Science, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  48. M’Hirit O, Blerot P (1999) The great book of Moroccan forests (Le grand livre de la forêt marocaine). Editions Mardaga, Brussels (in French) Google Scholar
  49. Machtans CS, Latour PB (2003) Boreal forest songbird communities of the Liard Valley, Northwest Territories, Canada. Condor 105:27–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Marsden SJ, Whiffin M, Galetti M (2001) Bird diversity and abundance in forest fragments and Eucalyptus plantations around an Atlantic forest reserve, Brazil. Biodivers Conserv 10(5):737–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McGarigal K, Cushman SA, Stafford S (2000) Multivariate statistics for wildlife and ecology research. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ministère de l’Agriculture et des pêches Maritimes (MAPM) (2017) L’Agriculture en chiffres. Maroc, p. 29Google Scholar
  53. Muñoz-Cobo J (1987) Las comunidades de aves de los olivares de Jaén. Ph.D. thesis, Universidad Complutense, MadridGoogle Scholar
  54. Myczko Ł, Rosin ZM, Skorka P, Wylegała P, Tobolka M, Fliszkiewicz M, Tryjanowski P (2013) Effects of management intensity and orchard features on bird communities in winter. Ecol Res 28(3):503–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Paillet Y, Bergès L, Hjältén J, Odor P, Avon C, Bernhardt-Römermann M, Bijlsma RJ, De Bruyn L, Fuhr M, Grandin U, Kanka R, Lundin L, Luque S, Magura T, Matesanz S, Mészáros I, Sebastià MT, Schmidt W, Standovár T, Tóthmérész B, Uotila A, Valladares F, Vellak K, Virtanen R (2010) Biodiversity differences between managed and unmanaged forests: meta-analysis of species richness in Europe. Conserv Biol 24:101–112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Pebesma EJ (2006) The gstat package. www.gstat.org. Accessed 9 Sep 2017
  57. Pebesma EJ, Bivand RS (2005) Classes and methods for spatial data in R. R News 5(2):9–13Google Scholar
  58. Peiro V (1990) Aspectos de la reproduccion de la Tortola comun (Streptopelia turtur) en Madrid. Med Ser Biol 12:89–96Google Scholar
  59. Potter C, Klooster S, Hiatt S, Fladeland M, Genovese V, Gross V (2007) Satellite-derived estimates of potential carbon sequestration through afforestation of agricultural lands in the United States. Clim Change 80:323–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Prodon R, Lebreton J-D (1981) Breeding avifauna of a Mediterranean succession: the holm oak and cork oak series in the eastern Pyrenees. 1. Analysis and modelling of the structure gradient. Oikos 37:21–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Proença VM, Pereira HM, Guilherme J, Vicente L (2010) Plant and bird diversity in natural forests and in native and exotic plantations in NW Portugal. Acta Oecol 36:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Quantum GIS Development Team (2017) QGIS Geographic Information System, Version 2.18.14-Las Palmas. Open Source Geospatial Foundation, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  63. R Development Core Team (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. ISBN 3-900051-07-0. http://www.R-project.org. Accessed 17 Aug
  64. Reino L, Beja P, Osborne PE, Morgado R, Fabião A, Rotenberry JT (2009) Distance to edges, edge contrast and landscape fragmentation: interactions affecting farmland birds around forest plantations. Biol Conserv 142(4):824–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rey PJ (1995) Spatio-temporal variation in fruit and frugivorous birds abundance in olive plantations. Ecology 76:1625–1635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rey PJ (2011) Preserving frugivorous birds in agro-ecosystems: lessons from Spanish olive orchards. J Appl Ecol 48:228–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rey PJ, Gutierrez JE, Alcintara J, Valera F (1997) Fruit size in wild olives: implications for avian seed dispersal. Funct Ecol 11:611–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rguibi-Idrissi H, Dakki M, Barlein F (2007) Migration et hivernage de quelques passereaux au Maroc: Mise au point à partir des données de baguage-reprise. Ostrich 78(2):343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sarkar D (2015). Lattice: trellis graphics for R. https://cran.r-project.org/package=lattice. Accessed 9 Sep 2017
  70. Smith SB, McPherson KH, Backer JM, Pierce BJ, Podlesak DW, McWilliams SR (2007) Fruit quality and consumption by songbirds during autumn migration. Wilson J Ornithol 119(3):419–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sweeney O, Wilson M, Irwin S, Kelly T, O’Halloran J (2010) Are bird density, species richness and community structure similar between native woodlands and non-native plantations in an area with a generalist bird fauna? Biodivers Conserv 19:2329–2342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tellería JL, Galarza A (1990) Avifauna y paisaje en el Norte de España: efecto de las repoblaciones con árboles exóticos. Ardeola 37:229–245Google Scholar
  73. Terraube J, Archaux F, Deconchat M, Halder I, Jactel H, Barbaro L (2016) Forest edges have high conservation value for bird communities in mosaic landscapes. Ecol Evol 6(15):5178–5189CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Tramblay Y, Badi W, Driouech F, El Adlouni S, Neppel L, Servat E (2012) Climate change impacts on extreme precipitation in Morocco. Glob Planet Change 82–83:104–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Venables WN, Ripley BD (2002) Modern applied statistics with S, 4th edn. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. World Bank (2012). Maroc—Plan Maroc vert: Projet Pilier II “Agriculture solidaire et intégrée au Maroc”. Washington: World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/115561468279278623/Maroc-Plan-Maroc-vert-Projet-Pilier-II-Agriculture-solidaire-et-intégrée-au-Maroc
  77. Zurita GA, Rey N, Varela DM, Villagra M, Bellocq MI (2006) Conversion of the Atlantic forest into native and exotic tree plantations: effects on bird communities from the local and regional perspectives. For Ecol Manag 235:164–173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.08.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forest Research CentreHigh Commission for Water, Forests and Combating DesertificationRabat-AgdalMorocco
  2. 2.Université Moulay Ismail, Ecole Supérieure de Technologie de KhénifraKhénifraMorocco

Personalised recommendations