Advertisement

Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 91, Issue 6, pp 1157–1164 | Cite as

Heartwood assessment of natural Santalum album populations for agroforestry development in Sri Lanka

  • S. M. C. U. P. Subasinghe
  • S. C. Samarasekara
  • K. P. Millaniyage
  • D. S. Hettiarachchi
Article
  • 144 Downloads

Abstract

Sandalwood (Santalum album) is developing as an important agroforestry crop in Sri Lanka. The value of S. album depends upon the oil content in the heartwood and its composition with reference to sesquiterpene alcohols cis-α-santalol and cis-β-santalol. According to the popular belief in Sri Lanka, certain S. album trees do not produce oil even after maturity. Therefore the present study was conducted to identify the presence and the variation of essential oil, its composition and the variation of growth parameters of nine distinctive S. album populations growing under different agroecological zones in Sri Lanka. According to the results, heartwood content, oil content and its constituents varied within and between the populations. It was interesting to observe that cis-α-santalol and cis-β-santalol were not detected in certain S. album trees though the oil contents of those trees were higher than the average. Heartwood content of the trees did not show a correlation with oil content, dbh and height. However, the oil content was significantly correlated with tree dbh and height. Majority of the trees (62 %) had heartwood essential oil in compliance to ISO standards; only a 31 % of the total sampled trees had the essential oil content above 2 % (w/w). Dry mountainous Badulla district had the highest percentage of trees complying the ISO standards. These findings are vital for identifying suitable sources for agroforestry propagation of S. album.

Keywords

Sandalwood Santalum album Sri Lanka Alpha and beta santalol 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research is a part of a project supported by the National Research Council of Sri Lanka (Grant Number NRC 11-176). Authors are grateful to the Ayurvedic practitioners Dr. (Mrs.) G.M.M.K Gunawardena of Monaragala and Dr. T.M. Kapuru Banda of Maho for sharing the knowledge on sandalwood based on Ayurveda compendium. Authors also acknowledge Mr. S.V. Gunasekara of Kurunegala, Mr. R.M Piyadasa of Hambantota, Mr. D.V. Silva and Mr. R.A. Samarasekara of Badualla for providing sample trees and sharing the traditional knowledge on sourcing sandalwood.

References

  1. Adams DR, Bhatnagar SP, Cookson RC (1975) Sesquiterpenes of S. album and S. spicatum. Phytochemistry 14:1459–1460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anonis DP (1998) Sandalwood and sandalwood compounds. Perfum Flav 23:19–24Google Scholar
  3. Arun Kumar AN, Joshi G, Srinivasa YB (2014) Heartwood and oil content variation in S. album—implication in tree improvement. Sandalwood: Current trends and future prospects. Bangalore ICFREGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldovini N, Delasalle C, Joulain D (2011) Phytochemistry of the heartwood from fragrant Santalum species: a review. Flav Frag 26:7–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barrett DR, Fox JED (1995) Geographical distribution and botanical characteristics of species in the genus Santalum. In: Gjerum L, Fox JED, Ehrhart L (eds) Sandalwood seed nursery and plantation technology. FAO, Suva, pp 195–201Google Scholar
  6. Bottin L, Isnard C, Lagrange A, Bouvet J-M (2007) Comparative molecular and phytochemical study of the tree species Santalum austrocaledonicum (Santalaceae) distributed in the New-Caledonian Archipelago. Chem Biodiv 4:1541–1556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brand JE, Pronk GM (2011) Influence of age on sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) oil content within different wood grades from five plantations in Western Australia. Aust For 74:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brand J, Kimber P, Streatfield J (2006) Preliminary analysis of Indian sandalwood (S. album L.) oil from a 14 year old plantation at Kununurra, Western Australia. Sandalwood Res Newsl 21:1–3Google Scholar
  9. Brand JE, Fox JED, Pronk G, Cornwell C (2007) Comparison of oil concentration and oil quality from Santalum spicatum and S. album plantations, 8–25 years old, with those from mature S. spicatum natural stands. Aust For 70:235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brand JE, Norris LJ, Dumbrell IC (2012) Estimated heartwood weights and oil concentrations within 16-year-old Indian sandalwood (S. album) trees planted near Kununurra, Western Australia. Aust For 75:225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Doran J, Thomson L, Brophy J, Goldsack B, Bulai P, Faka’osi T, Mokoia T (2005) Variation in heartwood oil composition of young sandalwood trees in the south pacific (Santalum yasi, S. album and F1 hybrids in Fiji and S. yasi in Tonga and Niue). Sandalwood Res Newsl 20:3–8Google Scholar
  12. Flora and fauna protection ordinance act published as a supplement to Part II of the gazette no. 22 (Amendment 2009). Democratic socialist republic of Sri Lanka, Apr 24 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. Fox JED (2000) Sandalwood: the royal tree. Biologist 47(1):31–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Haffner D (1993) Determining heartwood formation within S. album and S. spicatum. Sandalwood Res Newsl 1:4–5Google Scholar
  15. Hettiarachchi DS (2012) The good, the bad and the ugly: a review on sandalwood quality. In: Nageswara-Rao M, Soneji JR, Harbaugh-Reynaud DT. International sandalwood symposium. Lulu Press, Honolulu, pp 207–217Google Scholar
  16. International Standards Organisation (2002) Oil of sandalwood (S. album L.) ISO3518:2002Google Scholar
  17. Jain S, Angadi V, Shankaranarayana K (2003a) Edaphic, environmental and genetic factors associated with growth and adaptability of sandal (S. album L.) in provenances. Sandalwood Res Newsl 17:6–7Google Scholar
  18. Jain S, Angadi V, Shankaranarayana K, Ravikumar G (2003b) Relationship between girth and percentage of oil in trees of sandal (S. album L.) provenances. Sandalwood Res Newsl 18:4–5Google Scholar
  19. Page T, Tate H, Tungon J, Sam C, Dickinson G, Robson K, Southwell I, Russell M, Waycott M, Leakey RRB, (2006). Evaluation of heartwood and oil characters in nine populations of Santalum austrocaledonicum from Vanuatu Sandalwood Res Newsl: pp 4–7Google Scholar
  20. Page T, Southwell I, Russell M, Tate H, Tungon J, Sam C, Dickinson G, Robson K, Leakey RRB (2010) Geographic and phenotypic variation in heartwood and essential-oil characters in natural populations of S. austrocaledonicum in Vanuatu. Chem Biodivers 7:1990–2006CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Panabokke CR (1996) Soil and agro-ecological environments of Sri Lanka natural resources—series 2 natural resources, energy and science authority p.220Google Scholar
  22. Ayurveda pharmacopoeia (1980) Department of Ayurveda ColomboGoogle Scholar
  23. Subasinghe SMCUP (2013) Sandalwood research: a global perspective. J Trop For Environ 3:1–8Google Scholar
  24. Subasinghe U, Gamage M, Hettiarachchi DS (2013) Essential oil content and composition of Indian sandalwood (S. album) in Sri Lanka. J For Res 24(1):127–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tennakoon KU, Ekanayake SP, Etampawala ERLB (2000) An overview of S. album research in Sri Lanka. Sandalwood Res Newsl 11:1–4Google Scholar
  26. Verghese J, Sunny TP, Balakrishnan KV (1990) Alpha santalo and beta santalol, a new quality determination of East Indian sandalwood oil. Flav Frag 5:223–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. C. U. P. Subasinghe
    • 1
  • S. C. Samarasekara
    • 1
  • K. P. Millaniyage
    • 1
  • D. S. Hettiarachchi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Forestry and Environmental ScienceUniversity of Sri JayewardenepuraNugegodaSri Lanka
  2. 2.Wescorp SandalwoodWescorp GroupCanning ValeAustralia

Personalised recommendations