Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 87, Issue 2, pp 475–492 | Cite as

Agroforestry in Europe: a review of the disappearance of traditional systems and development of modern agroforestry practices, with emphasis on experiences in Germany

Book Review

Abstract

Agroforestry is a new name for a rather old practice. From a historical point of view, various agroforestry systems existed in Europe, of which the wood pastures (Neolithicum), the Dehesas in Spain (~4,500 years old) and the Hauberg of the Siegerland (established in the Middle Age) are the most prominent. Other widespread systems in Europe were hedgerows, windbreaks and Streuobst (orchard intercropping). Due to mechanisation and intensification of agriculture, trees have been progressively removed from agricultural fields and traditional agroforestry systems slowly disappeared. Today, agroforestry systems are again increasing in interest as they offer the potential to solve important ecological and, especially, biodiversity problems, while at the same time enabling the production of food, wood products and fodder for cattle. Although agroforestry systems offer many advantages, many farmers are sceptical of these systems and are critical and risk-averse with regard to adopting new practices. However, in comparison to traditional systems, modern agroforestry systems can be adapted to current farming practices. By selecting suitable trees and appropriate tree management, high-quality timber can be produced without influencing agricultural crops excessively. In future, agroforestry systems will become increasingly important as they offer the prospect of producing woody perennials for bioenergy on the same land area as food and/or fodder plants, while enhancing overall biodiversity.

Keywords

Traditional agroforestry Modern agroforestry Management High-quality timber Short rotation coppice Biodiversity 

References

  1. Alavalapati JRR, Shrestha RK, Stainback GA, Matta JR (2004) Agroforestry development: an environmental economic perspective. Agrofor Syst 61–62:299–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altieri MA, Nicholls CI (2002) The simplification of traditional vineyard based agroforests in northwestern Portugal: some ecological implications. Agrofor Syst 56:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Austad I, Hauge L (2006) Pollarding in Western Norway. 1er Colloque Européen Sur Les Trognes, Vendôme, 26–28 October 2006Google Scholar
  4. Bastian O (1999) Notwendigkeit und Mittel ökologischer Planung. In: Bastian O, Schreiber K-F (eds) Analyse und ökologische Bewertung der Landschaft. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag GmbH Heidelberg, Berlin, p 13–25Google Scholar
  5. Baudry J, Bunce RGH, Burel F (2000) Hedgerows: an international perspective on their origin, function and management. J Environ Manag 60:7–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker A, Fasel P (2007) Nutzungsgeschichte der Siegerländer Niederwälder und Beschreibung des Untersuchungsgebietes Historischer Hauberg Fellinghausen. In: Landesamt für Natur, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen (ed) Niederwälder in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Beiträge zur Ökologie, Geschichte und Erhaltung, p 512Google Scholar
  7. Behre KE (2008) Landschaftsgeschichte Norddeutschlands. Wachholtz, NeumünsterGoogle Scholar
  8. Bender B, Chalmin A, Reeg T, Konold W, Mastel K, Spiecker H (2009) Moderne Agroforstsysteme mit Werthölzern—Leitfaden für die Praxis. Meisterdruck, Reute, p 51Google Scholar
  9. Borin M, Vianello M, Morari F, Zanin G (2005) Effectiveness of buffer strips in removing pollutants in runoff from a cultivated field in North-East Italy. Agric Ecosyst Environ 105:101–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borin M, Passoni M, Thiene M, Tempesta T (2010) Multiple functions of buffer strips in farming areas. Eur J Agron 32:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brandle JR, Hodges L, Zhou XH (2004) Windbreaks in North American agricultural systems. Agrofor Syst 61–62:65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brix M, Bender B, Spiecker H (2009) Wertholzproduktion in Agroforstsystemen. In: Reeg T, Bemmann A, Konold W, Murach D, Spiecker H (eds) Anbau und Nutzung von Bäumen auf landwirtschaftlichen Flächen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co KGaA, Weinheim, pp 251–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burgess PJ, Incoll LD, Corry DT, Beaton A, Hart BJ (2004) Poplar (Populus spp.) growth and crop yields in a silvoarable experiment at three lowland sites in England. Agrofor Syst 63:157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bürgi M, Stuber M (2003) Agricultural use of forests in Switzerland 1800–1950. Field crops and forestry in alternation, forest fruits and resin. Schweiz Z Forstwes 154:360–375 (in German, English summary)Google Scholar
  15. Buttler A, Kohler F, Gillet F (2009) The Swiss mountain wooded pastures: patterns and processes. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losado M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, p 377–396Google Scholar
  16. Cabanettes A, Auclair D, Imam W (1999) Diameter and height growth curves for widely-spaced trees in European agroforestry. Agrofor Syst 43:169–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cannell MGR, Van Noordwijk M, Ong CK (1996) The central agroforestry hypothesis: the trees must acquire resources that the crop would not otherwise acquire. Agrofor Syst 34:27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Casals P, Baiges T, Bota G, Chocarro C, Bello de F, Fanlo R, Sebastià MT, Taull M (2009) Silvopastoral systems in the Northeastern Iberian Peninsula: a multifunctional perspective. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losado M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, p 161–182Google Scholar
  19. Castro M (2009) Silvopastoral systems in Portugal: current status and future prospects. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losado M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, p 111–126Google Scholar
  20. Chalmin A (2008) Agroforstsysteme in Deutschland. Landinfo 7:1–7Google Scholar
  21. Chalmin A (2009) Produktionsaspekte in Agroforstsystemen mit Werthölzern—landwirtschaftliche Produktion. In: Reeg T, Bemmann A, Konold W, Murach D, Spiecker H (eds) Anbau und Nutzung von Bäumen auf landwirtschaftlichen Flächen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co KGaA, Weinheim, pp 275–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chalmin A, Mastel K (2009) Moderne Agroforstsysteme in Deutschland—Aspekte der landwirtschaftlichen Produktion von Agroforstsystemen. In: Spiecker H et al. (ed) Neue Optionen für eine nachhaltige Landnutzung. Schlussbericht des Projektes agroforst. http://www.agroforst.uni-freiburg.de/download/BMBF0330621_24-11-09.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2011
  23. Cleugh HA (1998) Effects of windbreaks on airflow, microclimates and crop yields. Agrofor Syst 41:55–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. DBU (2010) Multifunktionale Bewertung von Agroforstsystemen. DBU Schlussbericht. http://www.dbu.de/OPAC/ab/DBU-Abschlussbericht-AZ-25786.pdf. Accessed 25 July 2012
  25. Digitale-Europakarte (2011) http://www.digitale-europakarte.de. Accessed 14 Feb 2011
  26. Dimopoulos PD, Bergmeier E (2004) Wood pasture in an ancient submediterranean oak forest. Ecol Mediterr 30:137–146Google Scholar
  27. Dixon RK, Winjum JK, Andrasko KJ, Lee JJ, Schroeder PE (1994) Integrated land-use systems: assessment of promising agroforest and alternative land-use practices to enhance carbon conservation and sequestration. Clim Chang 27:71–92Google Scholar
  28. Dosskey M, Schultz D, Isenhart T (1997) Riparian buffers for agricultural land. Agroforestry Notes 3. USDA National Agroforestry Center, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  29. Dupraz C, Newman SM (1997) Temperate agroforestry: the European way. In: Gordon AM, Newman SM (eds) Temperate agroforestry systems. CAB International, Oxon, pp 181–236Google Scholar
  30. Dupraz C, Simorte V, Dauzat M, Bertoni G, Bernadac A, Masson P (1999) Growth and nitrogen status of young walnuts as affected by intercropped legumes in a Mediterranean climate. Agrofor Syst 43:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dupraz C, Burgess P, Gavaland A, Graves A, Herzog F, Incoll LD, Jackson N, Keesman K, Lawson G, Lecomte I, Liagre F, Mantzanas K, Mayus M, Moreno G, Palma J, Papanastasis V, Paris P, Pilbeam DJ, Reisner Y, Van Noordwijk M, Vincent G, Van der Werf W (2005) Synthesis of the silvoarable agroforestry for Europe (SAFE) project. INRA-UMR System Editions, Montpellier, p 254Google Scholar
  32. Editors (1982) What is agroforestry? Agrofor Syst 1:7–12Google Scholar
  33. Eichhorn MP, Paris P, Herzog F, Incoll LD, Liagre F, Mantzanas K, Mayus M, Moreno G, Papanastasis VP, Pilbeam DJ, Pisanelli A, Dupraz C (2006) Silvoarable systems in Europe—past, present and future prospects. Agrofor Syst 67:29–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ellenberg H (1954) Steppe-heath and forest pasture; a contribution to the history of settlement and landscape from the aspect of vegetation study. Erdkunde 8:188–194 (in German, English summary)Google Scholar
  35. Ellenberg H (2009) Vegetation ecology of Central Europe. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Fernández-Núñez E, Mosquera-Losada MR, Riguero-Rodríguez A (2007) Economic evaluation of different land use alternatives: forest, grassland and silvopastoral systems. Grassl Sci Europe 12:508–511Google Scholar
  37. Fernández-Núñez E, Riguero-Rodríguez A, Mosquera-Losada MR (2010) Carbon allocation dynamics one decade after afforestation with Pinus radiata D. Don and Betula alba L. under two stand densities in NW Spain. Ecol Eng 36:876–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fisher WR (1990) Schlich’s manual of forestry, vol V. Forest Utilization, Periodical Experts Book Agency, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  39. Gakis S, Mantzanas K, Alifragis D, Papanastasis VP, Papaioannou A, Seilopoulos D, Platis P (2004) Effects of understorey vegetation on tree establishment and growth in a silvopastoral system in northern Greece. Agrofor Syst 60:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Graves AR, Burgess PJ, Liagre F, Pisanelli A, Paris P, Moreno G, Bellido M, Mayus M, Postma M, Schindler B, Mantzanas K, Papanastasis VP, Dupraz C (2009) Farmer perceptions of silvoarable systems in seven European countries. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losado M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, p 67–86Google Scholar
  41. Gruenewald H, Brandt BKV, Schneider BU, Bens O, Kendzia G, Hüttl RF (2007) Agroforestry systems for the production of woody biomass for energy transformation purposes. Ecol Eng 29:319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harding A, Palutikof J, Holt T (2009) The climate system. In: Woodward J (ed) The physical geography of the Mediterranean. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 69–88Google Scholar
  43. Herzog F (1998) Streuobst: a traditional agroforestry system as a model for agroforestry development in temperate Europe. Agrofor Syst 42:61–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Herzog F (2000) The importance of perennial trees for the balance of northern European agricultural landscapes. Unasylva 200:42–48Google Scholar
  45. Incoll LD, Burgess PJ (2002) British isles. In: Paris P (ed) SAFE project—report: extant silvoarable practices in Europe. Porano, Italy, p 83Google Scholar
  46. Jeddeloh zu H, Collet G (1981) Die Wirkung von Windschutz in der Landschaft. AFZ Der Wald 15:359–360Google Scholar
  47. Jose S (2009) Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits: an overview. Agrofor Syst 76:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kaeser A, Palma J, Sereke F, Herzog F (2010) Umweltleistungen von Agroforstwirtschaft. ART Bericht 736:1–12Google Scholar
  49. Kapp G (1984) Agroforstwirtschaft in Deutschland. Allg F U J Ztg 155:266–270Google Scholar
  50. Kauter D, Lewandowski I, Claupein W (2003) Quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from Populus short rotation coppice for solid fuel use—a review of the physiological basis and management influences. Biomass Bioenergy 24:411–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Klötzli F, Dietl W, Marti K, Schubiger-Bossard C, Walther G-R (2010) Vegetation Europas—Das Offenland im vegetationskundlich-ökologischen Überblick. Ott Verlag, BernGoogle Scholar
  52. Konold W, Reeg T (2010) Historische agroforstliche Nutzformen in Mitteleuropa. In: Alemannisches Institut Freiburg e.V. (ed) Alemannisches Jahrbuch 2007/2008, 55/56:173–203Google Scholar
  53. Koster EA (2005) The physical geography of Western Europe. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Kreutz W (1961) Die ertragssteigernde Wirkungen von Windschutzpflanzungen. AFZ Der Wald 31:458–459Google Scholar
  55. Küpfer C, Balko J (2010) Streuobstwiesen in Baden-Württemberg—Wie viele Obstbäume wachsen im Land und in welchem Zustand sind sie? Horizonte 35:38–41Google Scholar
  56. Küster H (1995) Geschichte der Landschaft in Mitteleuropa von der Eiszeit bis zur Gegenwart. C.H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  57. Liagre F (2002) France. In: Paris P (ed) SAFE project—report: extant silvoarable practices in Europe. Porano, Italy, p 83Google Scholar
  58. Luick R (2009) Wood pastures in Germany. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losado M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, p 359–376Google Scholar
  59. Mander U, Kuusemets V, Lõhmus K, Mauring T (1997) Efficiency and dimensioning of riparian buffer zones in agricultural catchments. Ecol Eng 8:299–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mary F, Dupraz C, Delannoy E, Liagre F (1999) Incorporating agroforestry practices in the management of walnut plantations in Dauphiné, France: an analysis of farmer’s motivation. Agrofor Syst 43:243–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mayer AC (2003) Wood pasture management in an Alpine valley. Austrian J For Sci 120:19–28 (in German, English summary)Google Scholar
  62. McAdam JH, Burgess PJ, Graves AR, Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, Mosquera-Losada MR (2009) Classifications and functions of agroforestry systems in Europe. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losado M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, p 21–42Google Scholar
  63. Miloserdov NM (1989) Shelterbelts and the yield of winter barley. In: Nuberg IK (ed) (1998) Effect of shelter on temperate crops: a review to define research for Australian conditions. Agrofor Syst 41:3–34Google Scholar
  64. Montagnini F, Nair PKR (2004) Carbon sequestration: an underexploited environmental benefit of agroforestry systems. Agrofor Syst 61–62:281–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Moreno G, Pulido FJ (2009) The functioning, management and persistence of Dehesas. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losado M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, p 127–160Google Scholar
  66. Morhart C, Springmann S, Spiecker H (2010) Aufwertung von Kurzumtriebsplantagen mit Werthölzern—Ein modernes Agroforstsystem. AFZ Der Wald 22:26–28Google Scholar
  67. Mosquera-Losada MR, Fernández-Núñez E, Rigueiro-Rodríguez A (2006) Pasture, tree and soil evolution in silvopastoral systems of Atlantic Europe. For Ecol Manag 232:135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mosquera-Losada MR, McAdam JH, Romero-Franco R, Santiago-Freijanes JJ, Rigueiro-Rodríguez A (2009) Definitions and components of agroforestry practices in Europe. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losado M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, p 3–20Google Scholar
  69. Nair PKR (1991) State-of-the-art of agroforestry systems. For Ecol Manag 45:5–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nair PKR (1993) An introduction to agroforestry. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nair PKR (2011) Agroforestry systems and environmental quality: introduction. J Environ Qual 40:784–790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nair PKR, Gordon AM, Mosquera-Losada MR (2008) Agroforestry. In: Jorgenson SE, Fath BD (eds) Ecological engineering: encyclopedia of ecology, vol 1, p 101–110. Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  73. Nair PKR, Kumar BM, Nair VD (2009) Agroforestry as a strategy for carbon sequestration. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 172:10–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Newman SM (1986) A pear and vegetable interculture system: land equivalent ratio, light use efficiency and productivity. Expl Agric 22:383–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Oosterbaan A, Kuiters AT (2009) Agroforestry in the Netherlands. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losado M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, p 331–342Google Scholar
  76. Oosterbaan A, Schepers H, Kwanten E (2005) Walnut as a farm crop in the Netherlands: an agroforestry project in the east and selection of cultivars for organic cultivation in the north. Acta Hortic 705:27–34Google Scholar
  77. Palma JHN, Graves AR, Burgess PJ, Keesman KJ, van Keulen H, Mayus M, Reisner Y, Herzog F (2007a) Methodological approach for the assessment of environmental effects of agroforestry at the landscape scale. Ecol Eng 29:450–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Palma JHN, Graves AR, Bunce RGH, Burgess PJ, de Filippi R, Keesman KJ, van Keulen H, Liagre F, Mayus M, Moreno G, Reisner Y, Herzog F (2007b) Modeling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe. Agric Ecosyst Environ 119:320–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pannell DJ (1999) Social and economic challenges in the development of complex farming systems. Agrofor Syst 45:393–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Papanastasis VP, Mantzanas K, Dini-Papanastasi O, Ispikoudis I (2009) Traditional agroforestry systems and their evolution in Greece. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losado M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, p 89–110Google Scholar
  81. Park J, Newman SM, Cousins SH (1994) The effect of poplar (P. trichocarpa x deltoides) on soil biological properties in a silvoarable system. Agrofor Syst 25:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Peng RK, Sutton SL (1996) The activity and diversity of ground arthropods in an agroforestry system. In: Proceedings on 49th New Zealand plant protection conference, p 309–313. New Zealand Plant Protection Society Inc, RotoruaGoogle Scholar
  83. Peng RK, Incoll LD, Sutton SL, Wright C, Chadwick A (1993) Diversity of airborne arthropods in a silvoarable agroforestry system. J Appl Ecol 30:551–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pisanelli A, Paris P (2002) Italy. In: Paris P (ed) SAFE project—report: extant silvoarable practices in Europe. Porano, Italy, p 83Google Scholar
  85. Plieninger T, Schaar M (2008) Modification of land cover in a traditional agroforestry system in Spain: processes of tree expansion and regression. Ecol Soc 13:25Google Scholar
  86. Plieninger T, Wilbrand C (2001) Land use, biodiversity conservation, and rural development in the dehesas of Cuatro Lugares, Spain. Agrofor Syst 51:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Postma M (2005) It’s all in the mix. Agroforestry, a prospective land use system for the Netherlands. Master Thesis, Wageningen University, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  88. Pretzschel M, Bohme G, Krause H (1991) Effect of shelterbelts on crop yield. Agrofor Syst 41:3–34Google Scholar
  89. Quinkenstein A, Böhm C, Freese D, Wöllecke J, Grünewald H, Schneider BW, Hüttl RF (2008) Alley-Cropping-Ein klima-adaptierbares Landnutzungssystem zur nachhaltigen Biomasseproduktion. Forum der Forschung 21:131–138 (in German, English abstract)Google Scholar
  90. Quinkenstein A, Wöllecke J, Böhm C, Grünewald H, Freese D, Schneider BU, Hüttl RF (2009) Ecological benefits of the alley cropping agroforestry system in sensitive regions of Europe. Environ Sci Policy 12:1112–1121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Read H (2006) A brief review of pollards and pollarding in Europe. 1er Colloque Européen Sur Les Trognes, Vendôme, 26–28 October 2006Google Scholar
  92. Reeg T (2011) Agroforestry systems as land use alternatives in Germany? A comparison with approaches taken in other countries. Outlook Agric 40:45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Reeg T, Möndel A, Brix M, Konold W (2008) Conservation in agricultural landscape—new options through modern agroforestry systems? Natur und Landschaft 83:261–266 (in German, English summary)Google Scholar
  94. Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, Fernández-Núñez E, González-Hernández P, McAdam JH, Mosquera-Losada MR (2009) Agroforestry systems in Europe: productive, ecological and social perspectives. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losado M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, p 43–66Google Scholar
  95. SAFE (2005) Technological implementation plan. Final report. http://www1.montpellier.inra.fr/safe/english/results/final-report/SAFE%20Technological%20implementation%20Plan.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2011
  96. Sanchez PA (1995) Science in agroforestry. Agrofor Syst 30:5–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schlich WM (1990) Schlich’s manual of forestry, vol II. Silvicultura in the British Empire, Periodical Experts Book Agency, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  98. Shakesby RA, Coelho COA, Schnabel S, Keizer JJ, Clarke MA, Lavado Contador JF, Walsh RPD, Ferreira AJD, Doerr SH (2002) A ranking methodology for assessing relative erosion risk and its application to dehesas and montados in Spain and Portugal. Land Degrad Dev 13:129–140Google Scholar
  99. Shaw EB (1940) Geography of mast feeding. In: Smith J (ed) The history of temperate agroforestry 2010. The Organic Research Centre, Elm Farm, Hamstead Marshall, p 17Google Scholar
  100. Smith J (2010) The history of temperate agroforestry. The Organic Research Centre, Elm Farm, Hamstead Marshall, UK, p 17Google Scholar
  101. Smith J, Pearce BD, Wolfe MS (2012a) Reconciling productivity with protection of the environment: is temperate agroforestry the answer? Renew Agric Food Syst. doi:10.1017/S1742170511000585 Google Scholar
  102. Smith J, Pearce BD, Wolfe MS (2012b) A European perspective for developing modern multifunctional agroforestry systems for sustainable intensification. Renew Agric Food Syst. doi:10.1017/S1742170511000597 Google Scholar
  103. Stamps WT, Linit MJ (1998) Plant diversity and arthropod communities: implications for temperate agroforestry. Agrofor Syst 39:73–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Takács V, Frank N (2009) The traditions, resources and potential of forest growing and multipurpose shelterbelts in Hungary. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losado M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, p 415–434Google Scholar
  105. Vidrih M, Vidrih T, Kotar M (2009) In Slovenia: Management of intensive land use systems. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losado M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe: current status and future prospects. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, p 397–414Google Scholar
  106. Weller F (1996) Streuobstwiesen—Herkunft, heutige Bedeutung und Möglichkeit der Erhaltung. In: Konold W (ed) Naturlandschaft—Kulturlandschaft: Die Veränderung der Landschaft nach der Nutzbarmachung durch den Menschen. Ecomed, Landsberg, p 137–160Google Scholar
  107. Zehlius-Eckert W (2010) Agroforstwirtschaft in der europäischen Forschung—mit einem Schwerpunkt auf der ökologischen Nachhaltigkeit. Agrarholz, Berlin, 18–19 May 2010Google Scholar
  108. Zehnder M, Weller F (2006) Streuobstbau—Obstwiesen erleben und erhalten. Eugen Ulmer KG, StuttgartGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Crop Science, University of HohenheimStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations