Advertisement

Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 87, Issue 1, pp 19–43 | Cite as

Grazing land management and biodiversity in the Atlantic European heathlands: a review

  • Rocío Rosa GarcíaEmail author
  • Mariecia D. Fraser
  • Rafael Celaya
  • Luis Miguel Mendes Ferreira
  • Urcesino García
  • Koldo Osoro
Article

Abstract

Atlantic heaths are semi-natural habitats of high biodiversity interest which once covered large areas of the Atlantic Region. Nowadays these heathlands are dramatically reduced in many countries although they still cover wide areas in the north-west Iberian Peninsula, especially in the poorest and most socially marginal areas that are frequently affected by wildfires. We review the role of livestock grazing as a sustainable management strategy for heathlands in Europe. We have worked on a generalized conceptual framework for the management of a resource of nutritional and environmental value by drawing together evidence from studies of the livestock and the community ecology of grazed plants and the associated fauna. Key factors that influence grazing impact, such as type of livestock (animal species and breed) and their management are discussed. Goats thrive better than sheep, and horses than cattle, when heathland vegetation is the predominant resource available. Regardless of the type of livestock species managed, the low nutritive value of this vegetation hinders the maintenance of productive groups of suckler dams with offspring through the grazing season. The nutritional requirements of livestock can be met by adding improved pasture areas to heathlands. Under that strategy, sheep have the best productive performance and cattle the poorest. Management of mixed flocks with goats can lead to a more efficient use of vegetation, improve productivity and develop a patchier habitat which supports a richer associated fauna. Overall the results indicate that the sustainability of livestock grazing in these marginal lands will be achieved if they are managed effectively according to the available vegetation and their effects on the biodiversity.

Keywords

Foraging behaviour Mixed grazing Plant and animal biodiversity Native livestock breeds Extensive systems of grassland management 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank P. García-Rovés for his help with the figures and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.

References

  1. Abrams P (1980) Some comments on measuring niche overlap. Ecology 61:44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acs S, Hanley N, Dallimer M, Gaston KJ, Robertson P, Wilson P, Armsworth PR (2010) The effect of decoupling on marginal agricultural systems: implications for farm incomes, land use and upland ecology. Land Use Policy 27:550–563. doi: 10.1016/Jlandusepol.2009.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albon SD, Brewer MJ, O’Brien S, Nolan AJ, Cope D (2007) Quantifying the grazing impacts associated with different herbivores on rangelands. J Appl Ecol 44:1176–1187. doi: 10.1111/J1365-2664.2007.01318.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aldezabal A (2001) El sistema de pastoreo del Parque Nacional de Ordesa y Monte Perdido (Pirineo central, Aragón). Interacción entre la vegetación supraforestal y los grandes herbívoros. Consejo de Protección de la Naturaleza de Aragón. Zaragoza, SpainGoogle Scholar
  5. Alonso I, Hartley SE (1998) Effects of nutrient supply, light availability and herbivory on the growth of heather and three competing grass species. Plant Ecol 137:203–212. doi: 10.1023/A:1009770313618 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alonso I, Hartley SE, Thurlow M (2001) Competition between heather and grasses on Scottish moorlands: interacting effects of nutrient enrichment and grazing regime. J Veg Sci 12:249–260. doi: 10.2307/3236609 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Álvarez MA, García P, Valderrábano J (2004) Tipificación, cartografía y evaluación de los pastos españoles: Cartografía de los pastos de Asturias. SEEP-INIA-SERIDA-INDUROT, OviedoGoogle Scholar
  8. Amat F (2008). Lagarto ágil—Lacerta agilis. In: Carrascal LM, Salvador A (eds) Enciclopedia virtual de los vertebrados españoles. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid. http://www.vertebradosibericos.org/. Accessed 23 Feb 2011
  9. Andrews J, Rebane M (1994) Farming and wildlife. A practical management handbook. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, SandyGoogle Scholar
  10. Aronson J, Pereira JS, Pausas JG (eds) (2009) Corn Oak woodland on the edge. Ecology, adaptative management, and restoration. Island Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Báguena G, Sánchez-Castilla E, Antor RJ (2007) Criterios para la reintroducción de una especie amenazada: el quebratahuesos en el Parque Nacional de los Picos de Europa Organismo Autónomo Parques Nacionales y Medio Ambiente. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, MadridGoogle Scholar
  12. Baines D (1996) The implications of grazing and predator management on the habitats and breeding success of black grouse Tetrao tetrix. J Appl Ecol 33:54–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bakker JP, De Bie S, Dallinga JH, Tjaden P, De Vries Y (1983) Sheep-grazing as management tool for heathland conservation and regeneration in the Netherlands. J Appl Ecol 20:541–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bardgett RD, Marsden JH, Howard DC (1995) The extent and condition of heather on moorland in the uplands of England and Wales. Biol Conserv 71:155–161. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(94)00042-O CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barham DF, Stewart JA (2005) Differential indirect effects of excluding livestock and rabbits from chalk heath on the associated leafhopper (Hemiptera: Auchenorryhncha) fauna. J Insect Conserv 9:351–361. doi: 10.1007/s10841-005-0517-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bartolomé J, Franch J, Plaixats J, Seligman NG (1998) Diet selection by sheep and goats on Mediterranean heath-woodland range. J Range Manag 51:383–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Be Boer D (1978) Invloed van Maaiden en Branden op de Mierenfauna van de Dwingelose Heide (Drente). Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  18. Bell JR, Wheater CP, Cullen WR (2001) The implications of grassland and heathland management for the conservation of spider communities. J Zool 255:377–387. doi: 10.1017/S0952836901001479 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Benavides R, Celaya R, Ferreira LMM, Jáuregui BM, García U, Osoro K (2009) Grazing behaviour of domestic ruminants according to flock type and subsequent vegetation changes on partially improved heathlands. Span J Agric Res 7:417–430Google Scholar
  20. Berendse F (1985) The effect of grazing on the outcome of competition between plant species with different nutrient requirements. Oikos 44:35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bobbink R, Boxman D, Fremstad E, Heil G, Houdijk A, Roelofs J (1993) Nitrogen eutrophication and critical load for nitrogen based upon changes in flora and fauna in (semi)-natural terrestrial ecosystems. In: Proceedings of a UN-ECE workshop at Lökeberg, Sweden, pp 111–159Google Scholar
  22. Bokdam J (2001) Effects of browsing and grazing on cyclic succession in nutrient-limited ecosystems. J Veg Sci 12:875–886. doi: 10.2307/3236876 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bokdam J, Gleichman JM (2000) Effects of grazing by free-ranging cattle on vegetation dynamics in a continental north-west European heathland. J Appl Ecol 37:415–431. doi: 10.1046/J1365-2664.2000.00507.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Borghesio L, Luzzatto M, Palestrini C (1999) Interactions between dung, plants and the dung fauna in a heathland in northern Italy. Pedobiologia 43:97–109Google Scholar
  25. Britton AJ, Pearce ISK, Jones B (2005) Impacts of grazing on montane heath vegetation in Wales and implications for the restoration of montane areas. Biol Conserv 125:515–524. doi: 10.1016/Jbiocon.2005.04.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Buchanan GM, Grant MC, Sanderson RA, Pearce-Higgins JW (2006) The contribution of invertebrate taxa to moorland bird diets and the potential implications of land-use management. Ibis 148:615–628. doi: 10.1111/J1474-919X.2006.00578.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bullock DJ, Oates MR (1998) Rare and minoritary breeds in management for nature conservation: many questions and few answers? In: Lewis RM, Alderson GLM, Mercer JT (eds) The potential role of rare livestock breeds in UK farming systems. British Society of Animal Science, Edinburgh, pp 28–34Google Scholar
  28. Bullock JM, Pakeman RJ (1997) Grazing of lowland heath in England: management methods and their effects on heathland vegetation. Biol Conserv 79:1–13. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(96)00117-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bunce RGH, Pérez-Soba M, Jongman RHG, Gómez Sal A, Herzog F, Austad I (eds) (2004) Transhumance and biodiversity in European Mountains. Report of the EU-FP5 project TRANSHUMOUNT (EVK2-CT-2002-80017). IALE publication series 1Google Scholar
  30. Buttler A, Kohler F, Gillet F (2009) The Swiss mountain wooded pastures: patterns and processes. In: Rigueiro-Rodriguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losada MR (eds) Agroforestry in Europe, current status and future prospects. Springer, New York, pp 377–396Google Scholar
  31. Cabrero-Sañudo FJ, Lobo JM (2003) Reconocimiento de los factores determinantes de la riqueza de especies: el caso de los Aphodiinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Aphodiidae) en la Península Ibérica. Graellsia 59:155–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Canali G, Consortium E (2006) Common agricultural policy reform and its effects on sheep and goat market and rare breeds conservation. Small Rumin Res 62:207–213. doi: 10.1016/Jsmallrumres.2005.08.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Celaya R, Martínez A, Osoro K (2007a) Vegetation dynamics in Cantabrian heathlands associated with improved pasture areas under single or mixed grazing by sheep and goats. Small Rumin Res 72:165–177. doi: 10.1016/Jsmallrumres.2006.10.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Celaya R, Oliván M, Ferreira LMM, Martínez A, García U, Osoro K (2007b) Comparison of grazing behaviour, dietary overlap and performance in non-lactating domestic ruminants grazing on marginal heathland areas. Livest Sci 106:271–281. doi: 10.1016/Jlivsci.2006.08.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Celaya R, Benavides R, García U, Ferreira LMM, Ferre I, Martínez A, Ortega-Mora LM, Osoro K (2008) Grazing behaviour and performance of lactating suckler cows, ewes and goats on partially improved heathlands. Animal 2:1818–1831. doi: 10.1017/S1751731108003224 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Celaya R, Ferreira LMM, Moreno-Gonzalo J, Frutos P, Hervás G, Ferre I, García U, Ortega-Mora LM, Osoro K (2010a) Effects of heather and oat supplementation on gastrointestinal nematode infections and performance of grazing Cashmere goats. Small Rumin Res 91:186–192. doi: 10.1016/Jsmallrumres.2010.03.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Celaya R, Jáuregui BM, Rosa García R, Benavides R, García U, Osoro K (2010b) Changes in heathland vegetation under goat grazing: effects of breed and stocking rate. Appl Veg Sci 13:125–134. doi: 10.1111/J1654-109X.2009.01054.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Celaya R, Ferreira LMM, García U, Rosa García R, Osoro K (2011) Diet selection and performance of cattle and horses grazing in heathlands. Animal 5:1467–1473. doi: 10.1017/S1751731111000449 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Coulson JC (1988) The structure and importance of invertebrate communities on peatlands and moorlands, and effects of environmental changes. In: Usher MB, Thompson DBA (eds) Ecological change in the uplands. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 365–380Google Scholar
  40. Cox J (1999) The nature conservation importance of dung. Br Wildl 11:28–36Google Scholar
  41. Critchley CNR, Adamson HF, McLean BML, Davies OD (2008) Vegetation dynamics and livestock performance in system-scale studies of sheep and cattle grazing on degraded upland wet heath. Agric Ecosyst Environ 128:59–67. doi: 10.1016/Jagee.2008.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Crofts A, Jefferson RG (eds) (1999) Lowland grassland management handbook, 2nd edn. English Nature/The Wildlife Trusts. http://naturalengland.etraderstores.com/NaturalEnglandShop/Grassland. Accessed 29 Mar 2011
  43. Crouzet P, Leonard J, Nixon S, Rees Y, Parr W, Laffon L, Bøgestrand J, Kristensen P, Lallana C, Izzo G, Bokn T, Bak J, Lack TJ, Thyssen N (1999) Nutrients in European ecosystems. European Environment Agency. Environmental assessment report No 4. http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/ENVIASSRP04. Accessed 20 Mar 2012
  44. Cuartas P (1992) Herbivorismo de grandes mamíferos en un ecosistema de montaña mediterránea. PhD thesis, Universidad de OviedoGoogle Scholar
  45. Cuartas P, Gordon IJ, Hester AJ, Perez-Barberia FJ, Hulbert IA (2000) The effect of heather fragmentation and mixed grazing on the diet of sheep Ovis aries and red deer Cervus elaphus. Acta Theriol 45:309–320Google Scholar
  46. De Rancourt M, Fois N, Lavín MP, Tchakérian E, Vallerand F (2006) Mediterranean sheep and goats production: an uncertain future. Small Rumin Res 62:167–179. doi: 10.1016/Jsmallrumres.2005.08.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. del Pozo M, Osoro K, Celaya R (1998) Effects of complementary grazing by goats on sward composition and on sheep performance managed during lactation in perennial ryegrass and white clover pastures. Small Rumin Res 29:173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dennis P (2003) Sensitivity of upland arthropod diversity to livestock grazing, vegetation structure and landform. Food Agr Environ 1:301–307Google Scholar
  49. Dennis RLH (2004) Just how important are structural elements as habitat components? Indications from a declining lycaenid butterfly with priority conservation status. J Insect Conserv 8:37–45. doi: 10.1023/B:JICO.0000027496.82631.4b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dennis P, Young MR, Howard CL, Gordon IJ (1997) The response of epigeal beetles (Col.: Carabidae, Staphylinidae) to varied grazing regimes on upland Nardus stricta grasslands. J Appl Ecol 34:433–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Devon biodiversity action plan (2005) Devon biodiversity action for southern damselfly. http://www.devon.gov.uk/dbap-insect-damselfly.pdf. Accessed 01 Mar 2012
  52. Downie IS, Ribera I, McCracken DI, Wilson WL, Foster GN, Waterhouse A, Abernethy VJ, Murphy KJ (2000) Modelling populations of Erigone atra and E. dentipalpis (Araneae: Linyphiidae) across an agricultural gradient in Scotland. Agric Ecosyst Environ 80:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dumont B, Maillard J-F, Petit M (2000) The effect of the spatial distribution of plant species within the sward on the searching success of sheep when grazing. Grass For Sci 55:138–145. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2494.2000.00207.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Edgar P, Foster J, Baker J (2010) Reptile habitat management handbook. Amphibian and reptile conservation, Bournemouth. http://www.arc-trust.org/downloads/RHMH.pdf. Accessed 01 Mar 2012
  55. English Nature (2005) Grazing management of lowland heathlands. English Nature. http://naturalengland.etraderstores.com/NaturalEnglandShop/product.aspx?ProductID=8918017f-83e2-4c3c-afb8-0bac6c227f3c. Accessed 13 Mar 2011
  56. European Environment Agency (2010) The European environment. State and outlook 2010. Land use. http://www.eea.europa.eu/soer/europe/land-use. Accessed 16 Mar 2012
  57. Evans DM, Redpath SM, Evans SA, Elston DA, Gardner CJ, Dennis P, Pakeman RJ (2006) Low stocking, mixed livestock improves the breeding abundance of a common insectivorous passerine. Biol Lett 2:636–638. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2006.0543 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. FAO (2009) The state of food and agriculture. Livestock in the valance. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  59. Ferreira LMM, Celaya R, Benavides R, García U, Osoro K (2011) Comparison of animal performance of domestic herbivores grazing on partially improved heath lands. In: Bouche R, Derkimba A, Casablanca F (eds) New trends for innovation in the Mediterranean animal production. EAAP publ. 129. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  60. Fraser MD, Theobald VJ, Davies DR, Moorby JM (2009a) Impact of diet selected by cattle and sheep grazing heathland communities on nutrient supply and faecal micro-flora activity. Agric Ecosyst Environ 129:367–377. doi: 10.1016/Jagee.2008.10.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fraser MD, Theobald VJ, Griffiths JB, Morris SM, Moorby JM (2009b) Comparative diet selection by cattle and sheep grazing two contrasting heathland communities. Agric Ecosyst Environ 129:182–192. doi: 10.1016/Jagee.2008.08.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Frutos P, Moreno-Gonzalo J, Hervás G, García U, Ferreira LMM, Celaya R, Toral PG, Ortega-Mora LM, Ferre I, Osoro K (2008) Is the anthelmintic effect of heather supplementation to grazing goats always accompanied by anti-nutritional effects? Animal 2:1449–1456. doi: 10.1017/S1751731108002681 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fuller RJ, Gough SJ (1999) Changes in sheep numbers in Britain: implications for bird populations. Biol Conserv 91:73–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Galante E, Garcia-Roman M, Barrera L, Galindo P (1991) Comparison of spatial distribution patterns of dung feeding scarabs (Coleoptera Scarabaeidae, Geotrupidae) in wooded and open pastureland in the Mediterranean Dehesa area of the Iberian Peninsula. Environ Entomol 20:90–97Google Scholar
  65. Gallet S, Roze F (2001) Conservation of heathland by sheep grazing in Brittany (France): importance of grazing period on dry and mesophilous heathlands. Ecol Eng 17:333–344. doi: 10.1016/S0925-8574(00)00136-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gardiner T, Pye M, Field R, Hill J (2002) The influence of sward height and vegetation composition in determining the habitat preferences of three Chorthippus species (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Chelmsford, Essex, UK. J Orthoptera Res 11:207–213. doi: 10.1665/1082-6467(2002)011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gardner SM, Hartley SE, Davies A, Palmer SCF (1997) Carabid communities on heather moorlands in northeast Scotland: the consequences of grazing pressure for community diversity. Biol Conserv 81:275–286. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(96)00148-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gates S (1981) The Exmoor pony—a wild animal? Nat Devon 2:7–30Google Scholar
  69. Gibson CWD (1996) The effects of horse grazing on species-rich grasslands. English Nature, Research Report 164, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  70. Gibson CWD, Brown VK, Losito L, McGavin GC (1992) The responses of invertebrate assemblages to grazing. Ecography 15:166–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gimingham CH (1972) Ecology of heathlands. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  72. Gimingham CH (1985) Age-related interactions between Calluna vulgaris and phytophagous insects. Oikos 44:12–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gimingham CH (1992) The lowland heathland management handbook. English Nature, Science Series 8, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  74. González-Hernández MP, Silva-Pando FJ (1999) Nutritional attributes of understory plants known as components of deer diets. J Range Manag 53:132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. González-Hernández MP, Silva-Pando FJ, Casal Jiménez M (1998) Production patterns of understory layers in several Galician (NW Spain) woodlands: seasonality, net productivity and renewal rates. For Ecol Manag 109:251–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. González-Hernández MP, Karchesy J, Starkey E (2003) Research observation: hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of northwest Spain forests. J Range Manag 56:461–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gordon IJ (1988) Facilitation of red deer grazing by cattle and its impact on red deer performance. J Appl Ecol 25:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gordon IJ (1989) Vegetation community selection by ungulates on the isle of Rhum. II. Vegetation community selection. J Appl Ecol 26:53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Grant SA, Maxwell TJ (1988) Hill vegetation and grazing by domesticated herbivores: the biology and definition of management options. In: Usher MB, Thompson DBA (eds) Ecological change in the uplands. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 201–214Google Scholar
  80. Grant SA, Milne JA, Barthram GT, Souter WG (1982) Effects of season and level of grazing on the utilization of heather by sheep. 3. Longer-term responses and sward recovery. Grass Forage Sci 37:311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Grant SA, Bolton GR, Russel AJF (1984) The utilization of sown and indigenous plant species by sheep and goats grazing hill pastures. Grass Forage Sci 39:361–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Grant SA, Suckling DE, Smith HK, Torvell L, Forbes TDA, Hodgson J (1985) Comparative studies of diet selection by sheep and cattle: the hill grasslands. J Ecol 73:987–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Grant SA, Torvell L, Smith HK, Suckling DE, Forbes TDA, Hodgson J (1987) Comparative studies of diet selection by sheep and cattle: blanket bog and heather moor. J Ecol 75:947–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hampton M (2008) Management of Natura 2000 habitats. 4010 Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix. European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/management/habitats/pdf/4010_Atlantic_wet_heaths.pdf. Accessed 07 Mar 2011
  85. Hanley N, Davies A, Angelopoulos K, Hamilton A, Ross A, Tinch D, Watson F (2008) Economic determinants of biodiversity change over a 400-year period in the Scottish uplands. J Appl Ecol 45:1557–1565. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01570.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Harrison S, Inouye BD, Safford HD (2003) Ecological heterogeneity in the effects of grazing and fire on grassland diversity. Conserv Biol 17:837–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hartley SE, Amos L (1999) Competitive interactions between Nardus stricta L. and Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull: the effect of fertilizer and defoliation on above- and below-ground performance. J Ecol 87:330–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hartley SE, Mitchell RJ (2005) Manipulation of nutrient and grazing levels on heather moorlands: changes in Calluna dominance and consequences for community composition. J Ecol 93:990–1004. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2005.01025.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hartley SE, Gardner SM, Michell RJ (2003) Indirect effects of grazing and nutrient addition on the hemipteran community of heather moorlands. J Appl Ecol 40:793–803. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2664.2003.00846.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hester AJ, Baillie GJ (1998) Spatial and temporal patterns of heather use by sheep and red deer within natural heather/grass mosaics. J Appl Ecol 35:772–784. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2664.1998.355348.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hester AJ, Gordon IJ, Baillie GJ, Tappin E (1999) Foraging behaviour of sheep and red deer within natural heather/grass mosaics. J Appl Ecol 36:133–146. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2664.1999.00387.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hodgson J, Eadie J (1986) Vegetation resources and animal nutrition in hill areas: agricultural and environmental implications. In: O’Toole MA (ed) Hill Land Symposium. An Foras Talúntais, Dublin, pp 118–133Google Scholar
  93. Hofmann RR (1989) Evolutionary steps of ecophysiological adaptation and diversification of ruminants: comparative view of their digestive system. Oecologia 78:443–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hopkins A, Holz B (2006) Grassland for agriculture and nature conservation: production, quality and multi-functionality. Agron Res 4:3–20Google Scholar
  95. Hoste H, Torres-Acosta JFJ, Aguilar-Caballero AJ (2008) Nutrition–parasite interactions in goats: is immunoregulation involved in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes? Parasite Immunol 30:79–88. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3024.2007.00987.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Hulme PD, Merrell BG, Torvell L, Fisher JM, Small JL, Pakeman RJ (2002) Rehabilitation of degraded Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull-dominated wet heath by controlled sheep grazing. Biol Conserv 107:51–363. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00073-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Illius AW, Gordon IJ (1987) The allometry of food intake in grazing ruminants. J Anim Ecol 56:989–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Illius AW, Gordon IJ (1992) Modelling the nutritional ecology of ungulate herbivores: evolution of body size and competitive interactions. Oecologia 89:428–434Google Scholar
  99. Izquierdo J (2008) Asturias, región agropolitana. KRK Ediciones, OviedoGoogle Scholar
  100. Janssen TW (1984) Runderen in de Mariapeel. Ervaringen van tien jaren graasbeheer. Recreatievoorzieningen 84:33–35Google Scholar
  101. Jauregui BM, Rosa Garcia R, Garcia U, De Wallis Vries MF, Osoro K, Celaya R (2008) Effects of stocking density and breed of goats on vegetation and grasshopper occurrence in heathlands. Agric Ecosyst Environ 123:219–224. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2007.06.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Jáuregui BM, Celaya R, García U, Osoro K (2007) Vegetation dynamics in burnt heather-gorse shrublands under different grazing management with sheep and goats. Agrofor Syst 70:103–111. doi: 10.1007/s10457-007-9045-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Jáuregui BM, García U, Osoro K, Celaya R (2009) Sheep and goat grazing effects on three Atlantic heathland types. Rangel Ecol Manag 62:119–126. doi: 10.2111/07-120.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Jenkins D, Watson A (2001) Bird numbers in relation to grazing on a grouse moor from 1957–61 to 1988–98. Bird Study 48:18–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lake S, Bullock JM, Hartley S (2001) Impacts of livestock grazing on lowland heathland in the UK. English Nature, Research Report 422, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  106. Lisken-Kleinmans A (1998) The spider community of a northern German heathland: faunistic results. In: Proceedings of the 17th european colloquium of arachnology, Burnham Beeches, Bucks, pp 277–284Google Scholar
  107. Loidi J, García-Mijangos I, Herrera M, Berastegi A, Darquistade A (1997) Heathland vegetation of the northern-central part of the Iberian Peninsula. Folia Geobot 32:259–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Loucougaray G, Bonis A, Bouzille JB (2004) Effects of grazing by horses and/or cattle on the diversity of coastal grasslands in western France. Biol Conserv 116:59–71. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(03)00177-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lucey J, Doris Y (2001) Biodiversity in Ireland. A review of habitats and species. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.ie/downloads/pubs/biodiversity/EPA_Biodiversity.pdf. Accessed 15 Mar 2012
  110. Lumaret JP, Kirk AA (1991) South temperate dung beetles. In: Hanski I, Cambefort Y (eds) Dung beetle ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 97–115Google Scholar
  111. Lumaret JP, Kadiri N, Bertrand M (1992) Changes in resources: consequences for the dynamics of dung beetle communities. J Appl Ecol 29:349–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Mabelis AA (1976) Invloed van Maaien, Branden en Grazen op de Mierenfauna van de Stabrechtse Heide. Rijksinstituut voor Natuurbeheer, LeersumGoogle Scholar
  113. Maes D, Van Dyck H, Vanreusel W, Cortens J (2003) Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Flemish (north Belgium) wet heathlands, a declining habitat in Europe. Eur J Entomol 100:545–555Google Scholar
  114. Maes D, Vanreusel W, Talloen W, Van Dyck H (2004) Functional conservation units for the endangered Alcon Blue butterfly Maculinea alcon in Belgium (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Biol Conserv 120:233–245. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.02.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mandaluniz N, Ruiz R, Oregui LM (2009) Habitat use of free and mixed livestock grazing on grassland-heathland mosaics of Atlantic Mountains. Opt Méd 85:67–71Google Scholar
  116. Marley CL, Fraser MD, Davies DA, Rees ME, Vale JE, Forbes AB (2006) The effect of mixed and sequential grazing of cattle and sheep on the faecal egg counts and growth rates of weaned lambs when treated with anthelmintics. Vet Parasitol 142:134–141. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.06.030 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Marrs R, Britton A (2000) Conservation problems on Breckland heaths: from theory to practice. Biol Conserv 95:143–151. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00029-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Martín Piera F, Lobo JM (1996) A comparative discussion of trophic preferences in dung beetle communities. Misc Zool 19:13–31Google Scholar
  119. McCracken DI (1993) The potential for avermectins to affect wildlife. Vet Parasitol 48:273–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Menéndez R, Gutiérrez D (2004) Shifts in habitat associations of dung beetles in northern Spain: climate change implications. Ecoscience 11:329–337Google Scholar
  121. Milligan AL, Putwain PD, Cox ES, Ghorbani J, Le Duc MG, Marrs H (2004) Developing an integrated land management strategy for the restoration of moorland vegetation on Molinia caerulea-dominated vegetation for conservation purposes in upland Britain. Biol Conserv 119:371–385. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2003.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Mills J, Rook AJ, Dumont B, Isselstein J, Scimone M, De Wallis Vries MF (2007) Effect of livestock breed and grazing intensity on grazing systems: 5. Management and policy implications. Grass Forage Sci 62:429–436. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2494.2007.00596.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Mitchell RJ, Rose RJ, Palmer SCF (2008) Restoration of Calluna vulgaris on grass-dominated moorlands: the importance of disturbance, grazing and seeding. Biol Conserv 141:2100–2111. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2008.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Moreira MB, Coelho IS (2010) Determinants of change on extensive livestock systems: a theoretical framework. Rivista di Economia Agraria 65:487–489Google Scholar
  125. Ocharan FJ, Ferreras Romero M, Ocharan R, Cordero Rivera A (2006) Coenagrion mercuriale (Charpentier, 1840). In: Galante E, Verdú JR (eds) Libro Rojo de los Invertebrados de España. Dirección General para la Biodiversidad, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Madrid, pp 252–254Google Scholar
  126. Offer D, Edwards M, Edgar P (2003) Grazing heathland: a guide to impact assessment for insects and reptiles. English Nature, Research Report 497, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  127. Olea PP, Mateo-Tomás P (2009) The role of traditional farming practices in ecosystem conservation: the case of transhumance and vultures. Biol Conserv 142:1844–1853. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2009.03.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Olff H, Ritchie ME (1998) Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity. Trends Ecol Evol 13:261–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Osoro K, Celaya R, Martínez A (2000a) The effect of grazing management of sheep and goats on animal performance and vegetation dynamics in partially improved heath-gorse vegetation. In: Rook AJ, Penning PD (eds) Grazing management. The principles and practice of grazing, for profit and environmental gain, within temperate grassland systems. British Grassland Society, Occasional Symposium No. 34, Reading, pp 135–140Google Scholar
  130. Osoro K, Oliván M, Celaya R, Martínez A (2000b) The effect of Calluna vulgaris cover on the performance and intake of ewes grazing hill pastures. Grass Forage Sci 55:300–308. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2494.2000.0026.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Osoro K, Martínez A, Oliván M, García U, Celaya R (2005) Manejo de los herbívoros domésticos para la biodiversificación y el desarrollo rural sostenible. In: Osoro K, Argamentería A, Larraceleta A (eds) XLV Reunión Científica de la Sociedad Española para el Estudio de los Pastos, vol I. SERIDA, Gijón, pp 45–71Google Scholar
  132. Osoro K, Fernández Prieto E, Celaya R, Noval G, Alonso L, Castro P (1999a) Productive responses of two breeds of cows managed in two different hill vegetation covers. ITEA 95A:188–203Google Scholar
  133. Osoro K, Olivan M, Celaya R, Martínez A (1999b) Effects of genotype on the performance and intake characteristics of sheep grazing contrasting hill vegetation communities. Anim Sci 69:419–426Google Scholar
  134. Osoro K, Vassallo LM, Celaya R, Martínez A (1999c) Livestock production systems and the vegetation dynamics of Less Favoured Areas (LFAs): developing viable systems to manage semi-natural vegetation in temperate LFAs in Spain. In: Laker JP, Milne JA (eds) Livestock production in the European less favoured areas: meeting future economic, environmental and policy objectives through integrated research. Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Aberdeen, pp 133–143Google Scholar
  135. Osoro K, Benito-Peña A, Frutos P, García U, Ortega-Mora LM, Celaya R, Ferre I (2007a) The effect of heather supplementation on gastrointestinal nematode infections and performance in Cashmere and local Celtiberic goats on pasture. Small Rumin Res 67:184–191. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.09.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Osoro K, García U, Jáuregui BM, Ferreira LMM, Rook AJ, Celaya R (2007b) Diet selection and live-weight changes of two breeds of goats grazing on heathlands. Animal 1:449–457. doi: 10.1017/S1751731107683797 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Osoro K, Mateos-Sanz A, Frutos P, García U, Ortega-Mora LM, Ferreira LMM, Celaya R, Ferre I (2007c) Anthelmintic and nutritional effects of heather supplementation on Cashmere goats grazing perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures. J Anim Sci 85:861–870. doi: 10.2527/jas.2006-388 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Pakeman RJ, Nolan AJ (2009) Setting sustainable grazing levels for heather moorland: a multi-site analysis. J Appl Ecol 46:363–368. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01603.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Pearce ISK, Britton AJ, Armitage HFA, Jones B (2010) Additive impacts of nitrogen deposition and grazing on mountain moss-sedge heath. Bot Helv 120:129–137. doi: 10.1007/s00035-010-0075-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Pearce-Higgins JW, Grant MC (2006) Relationships between bird abundance and the composition and structure of moorland vegetation. Bird Study 53:112–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Peel S, Jefferson RG (2000) Grazing and biodiversity: opportunities and limitations in combining agricultural and ecological knowledge. In: Rook AJ, Penning PD (eds) Grazing management. The principles and practice of grazing, for profit and environmental gain, within temperate grassland systems. British Grassland Society, Occasional Symposium No. 34, Reading, pp 181–188Google Scholar
  142. Peeters A (2010) Country pasture/forage resource profile. Belgium. FAO, Roma. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Counprof/PDF%20files/Belgium.pdf. Accessed 9 Mar 2012
  143. Pétillon J, Georges A, Canard A, Ysnel F (2007) Impact of cutting and sheep grazing on ground-active spiders and ground beetles in some intertidal salt marshes (Western France). Anim Biodivers Conserv 30:201–209Google Scholar
  144. Piek H (1998) The practical use of grazing in nature reserves in The Netherlands. In: WallisDeVries MF, Bakker JP, Van Wieren SE (eds) Grazing and conservation management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 253–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Piessens K, Hermy M (2006) Does the heathland flora in north-western Belgium show an extinction debt? Biol Conserv 13:382–394. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2006.04.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Pratt R, Putman MRJ, Ekins JR, Edwards PJ (1986) Use of habitat by free-range cattle and ponies in New Forest, Southern England. J Appl Ecol 23:539–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Price EAC (2003) Lowland grassland and heathland habitats. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  148. Putman RJ (1996) Competition and resource partitioning in temperate ungulate assemblies. Chapman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Putman RJ, Pratt RM, Ekins JR, Edwards PJ (1987) Food and feeding behaviour of cattle and ponies in the New Forest, Hampshire. J Appl Ecol 24:369–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Radcliffe J (1986) Gorse—a resource for goats? N Z J Exp Agric 14:399–410Google Scholar
  151. Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, Mouhbi R, Santiago-Freijanes JJ, González-Hernández MP, Mosquera-Losada MR (2012) Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand. Sci Agric 69:38–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162012000100006
  152. Rook AJ, Tallowin JRB (2003) Grazing and pasture management for biodiversity benefit. Anim Res 52:181–189. doi: 10.1051/animres:2003014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Rook AJ, Dumont B, Isselstein J, Osoro K, WallisDeVries MF, Parente G, Mills J (2004) Matching type of grazing animal to desired biodiversity outcomes—a review. Biol Conserv 119:137–150. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2003.11.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Rosa García R, Jáuregui BM, García U, Osoro K, Celaya R (2009a) Effects of livestock breed and grazing pressure on ground-dwelling arthropods in Cantabrian heathlands. Ecol Entomol 34:466–475. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2008.01072.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rosa García R, Jáuregui BM, García U, Osoro K, Celaya R (2009b) Responses of arthropod fauna assemblages to goat grazing management in northern Spanish heathlands. Environ Entomol 38:985–995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rosa García R, Ocharan FJ, García U, Osoro K, Celaya R (2010a) Arthropod fauna on grassland-heathland associations under different grazing managements with domestic ruminants. C R Biol 333:226–234. doi: 10.1016/j.crvi.2009.12.008 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rosa García R, Ocharan FJ, Jáuregui BM, García U, Osoro K, Celaya R (2010b) Ground-dwelling arthropod communities present in three types of Cantabrian (NW Spain) heathland grazed by sheep or goats. Eur J Entomol 107:219–227Google Scholar
  158. Rosa García R, García U, Osoro K, Celaya R (2011) Ground-dwelling arthropod assemblages of partially improved heathlands according to the species of grazer and grazing regime. Eur J Entomol 108:107–115Google Scholar
  159. Rouquette JR, Thompson DJ (2005) Habitat associations of the endangered damselfly, Coenagrion mercuriale, in a water meadow ditch system in southern England. Biol Conserv 123:225–235. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.11.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Russel AJF (1990) Nutrition of cashmere goats. In: Russel AJF (ed) Scottish cashmere—the viable alternative. Scottish Cashmere Producers Association, Edinburgh, pp 32–46Google Scholar
  161. Santos JML (1992) Mercado, Economias e Ecossistemas no Alto Barroso, Montalegre, Edição da Câmara Municipal de Montalegre, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  162. Sielezniew M, Włostowski M, Dziekańska I (2010) Myrmica schencki (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as the primary host of Phengaris (Maculinea) arion (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) at feathlands in eastern Poland. S. Sociobiology 55:95–106Google Scholar
  163. Sineiro F, Osoro K, Díaz N (1984) Bases para la producción e intensificación ganadera en el monte gallego: la utilización de la vegetación espontánea y la siembra y mejora del pasto. In: Pastos y forrajes en alimentación animal, Actas de la XXII Reunión Científica de la Sociedad Ibérica de Nutrición Animal. SINA, Santiago de Compostela, pp 195–219Google Scholar
  164. Small RW (1994) Conservation of rare breeds of farm livestock. Br Wild 6:28–36Google Scholar
  165. Søgaard B, Skov F, Ejrnæs R, Pihl S, Fredshavn J, Nielse KE, Clausen P, Laursen K, Bregnballe T, Madsen J, Baatrup-Pedersen A, Søndergaard M, Lauridsen TL, Aude E, Nygaard B, Møller PF, Riis-Nielsen T, Buttenschøn RM (2007) Criteria for favourable conservation status in Denmark. Natural habitat types and species covered by the EEC Habitats Directive and birds covered by the EEC Birds Directive. National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus. Technical report No. 647. http://www.dmu.dk/Pub/FR647.pdf. Accessed 12 Feb 2012
  166. Steinheim G, Nordheim LA, Weladji RB, Holand Ø, Ådnøy T (2003) Digestive tract anatomy of Norwegian sheep: difference between breeds. Acta Agric Scand A Anim Sci 53:155–158. doi: 10.1080/09064700310012999 Google Scholar
  167. Steinheim G, Ådnøy T, Meuwissen T, Klemetsdal G (2004) Indications of breed by environment interaction for lamb weights in Norwegian sheep breeds. Acta Agric Scand A Anim Sci 54:193–196. doi: 10.1080/09064700410032068 Google Scholar
  168. Steinheim G, Nordheim LA, Weladji RB, Gordon IJ, Ådnøy T, Holand Ø (2005) Differences in choice of diet between sheep breeds grazing mountain pastures in Norway. Acta Agric Scand A Anim Sci 55:16–20. doi: 10.1080/09064700510009261 Google Scholar
  169. Stubbs A (1983) The management of heathland for invertebrates. In: Farrell L (ed) Heathland management. No. 2. Nature Conservation Council, Peterborough, pp 21–35Google Scholar
  170. Sundseth K (2009) Natura 2000 in the Atlantic Region. European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/info/pubs/docs/brochures/nat2000_atlantic.pdf. Accessed 23 Mar 2011
  171. Sutherland WJ, Hill DA (1995) Managing habitats for conservation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  172. Sydes C, Miller GR (1988) Range management and nature conservation in the British uplands. In: Usher MB, Thompson DBA (eds) Ecological change in the uplands. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, pp 323–337Google Scholar
  173. Tallowin JRB, Rook AJ, Rutter SM (2005) Impact of grazing management on biodiversity of grasslands. Anim Sci 81:193–198. doi: 10.1079/ASC50780193 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Thompson DBA, MacDonald AJ, Marsden JH, Galbraith CA (1995) Upland heather moorland in Great Britain: a review of international importance, vegetation change and some objectives for nature conservation. Biol Conserv 71:163–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Tolhurst S, Oates M (2001) The breed profiles handbook. English Nature on behalf of the GAP and FACT projects. http://www.grazinganimalsproject.org.uk. Accessed 02 Mar 2011
  176. Tubbs CR (1991) Grazing the lowland heaths. Br Wildl 2:276–289Google Scholar
  177. Usher MB, Thompson DBA (1993) Variation in the upland heathlands of Great Britain: conservation importance. Biol Conserv 66:69–81. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(93)90136-O CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Van den Bosch J, Bakker JP (1990) The development of vegetation patterns by cattle grazing at low stocking density in the Netherlands. Biol Conserv 51:263–272. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(90)90112-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Van Wieren SE (1988) Runderen in het bos. Begrazingsproef met Schotse hooglandrunderen in het natuurgebied de Imbos. Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken, Vrije Universiteit, EindrapportGoogle Scholar
  180. Van Wieren SE (1998) Effects of large herbivores upon the animal community. In: WallisDeVries MF, Bakker JP, Van Wieren SE (eds) Grazing and conservation management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 185–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Vandvik V, Heegaard E, Måren IE, Aarrestad PA (2005) Managing heterogeneity: the importance of grazing and environmental variation on post-fire succession in heathlands. J Appl Ecol 42:139–149. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.00982.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Vickery JA, Tallowin JR, Feber RE, Asteraki EJ, Atkinson PW, Fuller RJ, Brown VK (2001) The management of lowland neutral grasslands in Britain: effects of agricultural practices on birds and their food resources. J Appl Ecol 38:647–664. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2664.2001.00626.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. WallisDeVries MF, Bakker JP, Van Wieren SE (1998) Grazing and conservation management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Walton KC (1979) Diet of meadow pipits Anthus pratensis on mountain grassland in Snowdonia. Ibis 121:325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Wassmer T (1995) Selection of the spatial habitat of coprophagous beetles in the Kaiserstuhl area near Freiburg (SW-Germany). Acta Oecol 16:461–478Google Scholar
  186. Webb NR (1998) The traditional management of European heathlands. J Appl Ecol 35:987–990. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.1998.tb00020.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Webb NR (2002) Atlantic heathlands. In: Perrow MR, Davy AJ (eds) Handbook of ecological restoration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 401–418Google Scholar
  188. Welch D (1984) Studies in the grazing of heather moorland in north-east Scotland. II. Response of heather. J Appl Ecol 21:197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Welch D (1986) Studies in the grazing of heather moorland in north-east Scotland. V. Trends in Nardus stricta and other unpalatable graminoids. J Appl Ecol 23:1047–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Welch D, Scott D (1995) Studies in the grazing of heather moorland in north-east Scotland. VI. 20-year trends in botanical composition. J Appl Ecol 32:596–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Whittingham MJ, Percival SM, Brown AF (2001) Habitat selection by golden plover Pluvialis apricaria chicks. Basic Appl Ecol 2:177–191. doi: 10.1078/1439-1791-00049 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rocío Rosa García
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mariecia D. Fraser
    • 2
  • Rafael Celaya
    • 1
  • Luis Miguel Mendes Ferreira
    • 3
  • Urcesino García
    • 1
  • Koldo Osoro
    • 1
  1. 1.Servicio Regional de Investigación y Desarrollo Agroalimentario (SERIDA)VillaviciosaSpain
  2. 2.Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS)AberystwythUK
  3. 3.CECAV, Departamento de ZootecniaUniversidade Tras os Montes e Alto DouroVila RealPortugal

Personalised recommendations