Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 82, Issue 2, pp 149–159 | Cite as

Canopy cover influence on macrofungal richness and sporocarp production in montado ecosystems

  • C. Santos-Silva
  • A. Gonçalves
  • R. Louro


In this study we aimed to find out how macrofungi richness and sporocarp production varies in relation to both canopy cover and proximity of crown projection area, in order to discuss strategies and point out management actions that ensure macrofungal communities sustainability in montado ecosystems. The sporocarp survey was conducted once every two weeks, from October to February, between 2007 and 2009 in two representative sites of the most common (cork and holm oak) open montado ecosystems in southern Portugal. Results showed that canopy cover strongly shaped macrofungal communities composition and yield. Denser canopy cover enhanced mycorrhizal richness and reduced saprotrophic yield. Furthermore, mycorrhizal richness and yield increased with tree proximity. Finally some forest management strategies are suggested in order to enhance macrofungal richness and productivity, in montado ecosystems.


Macrofungal communities Crown influence Holm oak Cork oak Montado Mediterranean ecosystem Portugal 



This research was partly supported by ICAAM (Institute of Mediterranean Agricultural and Environmental Sciences), which is mainly subsidized by FCT (Science and Technology Foundation). We wish to thank to Drª Teresa Pinto-Correia and to Dr. António Mira for the critical reading of the manuscript.We also want to express our gratitude to the biology students who assisted in the field work.


  1. Agerer R (1985) Zur Ökologie der Mykorrhizapilze. J. Cramer, VaduzGoogle Scholar
  2. Amaranthus MP (1998) The importance and conservation of ectomycorrizal fungal diversity in forest ecosystems: lessons from Europe and the Pacific Northwest. In: General Technical Report PNW-GTR-431. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  3. Azul A (2002) Diversidade de fungos ectomicorrízicos em ecossistemas de Montado. Dissertação de Doutoramento. Universidade de Coimbra, CoimbraGoogle Scholar
  4. Belsky A (1994) Influence of trees on savanna productivity: tests of shade, nutrients, and tree–grass competition. Ecology 75:922–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belsky AJ, Amundson RG, Duxbury JM, Riha SJ, Ali AR, Mwonga SM (1989) The effects of trees on their physical, chemical, and biological environments in a semi-arid savanna in Kenya. J Appl Ecol 26:1005–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bills G, Holtzmann G, Miller O (1986) Comparison of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete communities in red spruce versus northern hardwood forests of West Virginia. Can J Bot 64:760–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bon M (2004) Champignons de France et D’Europe Occidentale. Flammarion, ParisGoogle Scholar
  8. Bonet J, Fischer C, Colinas C (2004) The relationship between forest age and aspect on the production of sporocarps of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Pinus sylvestris forests of the central Pyrenees. For Ecol Manage 203:157–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonet JA, Pukkala T, Fischer CR, Palahí M, Martínez de Aragón J, Colinas C (2008) Empirical models for predicting the production of wild mushrooms in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in the Central Pyrenees. Ann For Sci 65:206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Breitenbach J, Kränzlin F (1984) Champignons de Suisse, Tomo 1, Les Ascomycètes. Mycologia Eds, LucerneGoogle Scholar
  11. Breitenbach J, Kränzlin F (1986) Champignons de Suisse. Tomo 2, Champignons sans lames. Mycologia Eds, LucerneGoogle Scholar
  12. Breitenbach J, Kränzlin F (1991) Champignons de Suisse, Tome 3, Bolets et champignons à lames 1ère partie. Mycologia Eds, LucerneGoogle Scholar
  13. Breitenbach J, Kränzlin F (1995) Champignons de Suisse, Tome 4, Champignons à lames 2ème partie. Mycologia Eds, LucerneGoogle Scholar
  14. Breitenbach J, Kränzlin F (2000) Champignons de Suisse, Tome 5, Champignons à lames 3ème partie. Mycologia Eds, LucerneGoogle Scholar
  15. Brunner I, Brunner F, Laursen G (1992) Characterization and comparison of macrofungal communities in an Alnus tenuifolia and an Alnus crispa forest in Alaska. Can J Bot 70:1247–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calado M, Louro R, Santos-Silva C (2009) Influence of different management practices in the macrofungal communities of a cork oak stand after an extended drought period, in southern Portugal. Bol Soc Micol Madrid 33:237–253Google Scholar
  17. Calonge FD (1998) Flora Mycologica Iberica, vol 3. Consejo superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIS, MadridGoogle Scholar
  18. Courtecuisse R (2001) Current trends and perspectives for the global conservation of fungi. In: Moore D, Nauta M, Evans S, Rotheroe M (eds) Fungal conservation––issues and solutions. British Mycological Society, Cambridge, pp 7–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Bellis T, Kernaghan G, Bradley R, Widden P (2006) Relationships between stand composition and ectomycorrhizal community structure in boreal mixed-wood forests. Microb Ecol 52:114–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DGRF (2007) Resultados do Inventário Florestal Nacional 2005/06. Planeamento e Estatística. Direcção Geral dos Recursos Florestais. Ministério da Agricultura do Desenvolvimento Rural e das Pescas., LisboaGoogle Scholar
  21. EFI (2007) Scientific tools and research needs for multifunctional Mediterranean forest ecosystem management. In: Marc Palahí, Yves Birot, Mercedes Rois (Eds). European Forest Institute, JoensuuGoogle Scholar
  22. Ferreira DB (2001) Evolução da Paisagem de Montado no Alentejo Interior ao Longo do Séc XX: Dinâmica e Incidências ambientais. Finisterra, XXXVI 72:179–193Google Scholar
  23. Frade B, Alfonso A (2003) Atlas fotográfico de los hongos de la Península Ibérica. Celarayn Eds, LeónGoogle Scholar
  24. Gerhardt E, Vila J, Llimona X (2000) Hongos de España y de Europa. Omega Eds, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  25. Hawksworth DL (2001) The magnitude of fungal diversity: the 1.5 million species estimate revisited. Mycol Res 105:1422–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Honrubia M (2007) Aprovechamientos micológicos y Desarrollo Sostenible. In: Proceedings of the First World Conference on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Wild Fungi (World Fungi 2007), Cordoba, Spain. 46Google Scholar
  27. ICN (2006) Plano Sectorial da Rede Natura 2000. Instituto de Conservação da Natureza, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  28. Jansen AE (1991) The mycorrhizal status of Douglas fir in The Netherlands: its relation with stand age, regional factors, atmospheric pollutants and tree vitality. Agric Ecosyst Environ 35(2–3):191–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kernaghan G, Harper K (2001) Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi across an alpine/subalpine ecotone. Ecography 24(2):181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kränzlin F (2005) Champignons de Suisse, Tomo 6, Russulacea. Mycologia Eds, LucerneGoogle Scholar
  31. Laganà A, Loppi S, De Dominicis V (1999) Relationship between environmental factors and the proportions of fungal trophic groups in forest ecosystems of the central Mediterranean area. For Ecol Manage 124:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lodge DJ et al (1995) A Survey of Patterns of Diversity in Non-Lichenized Fungi. Mitt Eidgenöss Forsch anst Wald Schnee Landsch 70(1):157–173Google Scholar
  33. Lourenço N, Pinto-Correia T, Jorge MR, Machado CR (1998) Farming strategies and land use changes in southern Portugal: land abandonment or extensification of the traditional systems? Mediterrâneo 12(13):191–208Google Scholar
  34. Louro R, Calado M, Pinto B, Santos-Silva C (2007) Study on the ecology and distributional patterns of the epigeous Gasteromycetes in Parque de Natureza de Noudar (Alentejo, Portugal). In: Proceedings of the First World Conference on the conservation and sustainable use of wild fungi (World Fungi 2007), Cordoba, Spain, 132–134Google Scholar
  35. Louro R, Calado M, Pinto B, Santos-Silva C (2009) Epigeous Macrofungi of the Parque de Natureza de Noudar in Alentejo (Portugal). Mycotaxon 107:49–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Martius C, Höfer H, Garcia MVB, Römbke J, Förster B, Hanagarth W (2004) Microclimate in agroforestry systems in central Amazonia: does canopy closure matter to soil organisms? Agrofor Syst 60:291–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moreau PA, Courtecuisse R (2003) Écologie des Basidiomycètes dans les tourbières: quels facteurs expliquent la répartition des carpophores? Bulletin of the Geobotanical Institute ETH 69:31–44Google Scholar
  38. Moreno G, Manjon JLG, Zugaza A (1986) La guia de incafo de los hongos de la Peninsula Iberica, tomo I–II. Incafo SA, MadridGoogle Scholar
  39. Moser M (1978) Keys to Agarics and Boleti. Gustav Fischer Verlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  40. Ortega A, Lorite J (2007) Macrofungi diversity in cork-oak and holm-oak forests in Andaluzia (southern Spain); an efficient parameter for establishing priorities for its evaluation and conservation. Cent Eur J Biol 2(2):276–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pegler DN, Laessoe T, Spooner BM (1995) British puffballs, earthstars and stinkhorns, an account of British gasteroid fungi. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  42. Pereira PM, Fonseca MP (2003) Nature versus nurture: the making of the montado ecosystem. Conserv Ecol 7(3): 7. Available via Accessed 15 Oct 2009
  43. Pilz D, Molina R (2001) Commercial harvests of edible mushrooms from the forests of the Pacific Northwest United States: issues, management, and monitoring for sustainability. For Ecol Manage 593:1–14Google Scholar
  44. Pinho-Almeida F, Baptista-Ferreira JL (1996) Macromicetos da Herdade da Ribeira Abaixo (Grândola). Portugalia Acta Biologica, Sér. B, Sist 17:155–183Google Scholar
  45. Pinho-Almeida F, Baptista-Ferreira JL (2005) Cogumelos da Barrosinha (Alcácer do Sal)–Inventariação de macrofungos em áreas seleccionadas. Centro de Micologia da Universidade de Lisboa, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  46. Pinto-Correia T (1993) Threatened landscape in Alentejo, Portugal: the montado and other agro-sylvo-pastoral systems. Landsc Urban Plan 24:43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pinto-Correia T, Mascarenhas J (1999) Contribution to the extensification/intensification debate: new trends in the Portuguese montado. Landsc Urban Plan 46:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Plieninger T, Wilbrand C (2001) Land use, biodiversity conservation, and rural development in the dehesas of Cuatro Lugares, Spain. Agrofor Syst 51:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Richard F, Moreau P, Selosse MA, Gardes M (2004) Diversity and fruiting patterns of ectomycorrhizal and saprobic fungi in an old-growth Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex L. Can J Bot 82(12):1711–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Roberts C, Ceska O, Kroeger P, Kendrick B (2004) Macrofungi from six habitats over five years in Clayoquot Sound, Vancouver Island. Can J Bot 82:1518–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rodríguez JA, Frade B, Alfonso A, Rodríguez JAS, Prieto O, Martín E, Jarauta T (1990) Guía de hongos de la península ibérica. Celarayn Editorial, LeónGoogle Scholar
  52. Schenk HJ, Jackson RB (2002) The global biogeography of roots. Ecol Monogr 72:311–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Senn-Irlet B, Bieri G (1999) Sporocarp succession of soil-inhabiting macrofungi in an autochthonous subalpine Norway spruce forest of Switzerland. For Ecol Manage 124(2–3):169–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Twieg BD, Durall DM, Simard SW, Jones MD (2009) Influence of soil nutrients on ectomycorrhizal communities in a chronosequence of mixed temperate forests. Mycorrhiza 19:305–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Villeneuve N, Grandtner M, Fortin J (1989) Frequency and diversity of ectomycorrhizal and saprophytic macrofungi in the Laurentide Mountains of Quebec. Can J Bot 67:2616–2629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vogiatzakis IN, Mannion AM, Griffiths GH (2006) Mediterranean ecosystems: problems and tools for conservation. Prog Phys Geogr 30:175–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wiensczyk A, Gamiet S, Durall D, Jones M, Simard S (2002) Ectomycorrhizae and forestry in British Columbia: A summary of current research and conservation strategies. British Columbia J Ecosys Manag 2(1):1–19Google Scholar
  58. Yang X, Skidmore AK, Melick DR, Zhou Z, Xu J (2006) Mapping non-wood forest product (matsutake mushrooms) using logistic regression and a GIS expert system. Ecol model 198:208–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Mediterranean, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences; Biology DepartmentUniversity of ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal
  2. 2.Institute of Mediterranean, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences; Rural Engineering DepartmentUniversity of ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal

Personalised recommendations