Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 82, Issue 2, pp 105–110 | Cite as

Observations on 3-dimensional crown growth of Stone pine

  • Peter SurovýEmail author
  • Nuno Ribeiro
  • João Santos Pereira


In this work we wish to demonstrate the possibility of a reconstruction of the 3D growth of the Stone pine (Pinus pinea L) crown. The crowns of two samples were digitized in segments corresponding with individual years, which allowed us to reconstruct length-growth and 3D shape over the last 5 years. Due to the low sample amount, we limited ourselves to observations and methodology-descriptions instead of overall conclusions. We were able to observe diminished height-growth in year 2006, which is the year after a severe drought. However, this was not observed in the total length-growth of the crown. It is possible to see that the growth of 2006 is not dominant at the top of the crown, as it would have been in normal years. The year of the drought, 2005, is visible in the annual rings, but the shoot length of 2005 is not visibly lower than expected.


Pinus pinea 3D digitization Crown architecture 



We would like to acknowledge Reinhard Hemmerling for his valued assistance in geometrical calculations, Fréderic Danjon for substantial information about the digitalization technique and FASTRAK functioning. The first author would like to thank FCT (Fundacao de Ciencia e Tecnologia) for funding, through grant SFRH/BPD/29953/2006.


  1. Barthélémy D, Caraglio Y (2007) Plant architecture: a dynamic, multilevel and comprehensive approach to plant form, structure and ontogeny. Ann Bot 99(3):375–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Danjon F, Reubens B (2008) Assessing and analyzing 3D architecture of woody root systems, a review of methods and applications in tree and soil stability, resource acquisition and allocation. Plant Soil 303(1–2):1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Donès N, Adam B, Sinoquet H (2006) PiafDigit: software to drive a Polhemus Fastrak 3 SPACE 3D digitizer and for the acquisition of plant architecture. Version 1.0 UMR PIAF INRA-UPB, Clermont-Ferrand, 15 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Godin C, Costes E, Sinoquet H (2005) Plant architecture modeling: virtual plants and complex systems. In: Turnbull CGN (ed) Plant architecture and its manipulation. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 238–287 Annual Plant Reviews no. 17Google Scholar
  5. Halle F, Oldeman RAA, Thomlinson PB (1978) Tropical trees and forests–an architectural analysis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, p 441Google Scholar
  6. Kurth W (1994) Growth Grammar Interpreter GROGRA 2.4: introduction and reference manual. B-38 FZW, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  7. Lanner M (1989) An observation on apical dominance and the umbrella-crown of Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea, Pinaceae). Econ Bot 43:128–130Google Scholar
  8. Mutke S, Gil L (2004) Análisis Y Modelización De La Arquitectura De Copa De Pinus Pinea L. Actas de la Reunion de Modelizaación Forestal, pp 71–76Google Scholar
  9. Mutke S, Sievänen R, Nikinmaa E, Perttunen J, Gil L (2005) Crown architecture of grafted Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.): shoot growth and bud differentiation. Trees 19(1):15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Oliver CD, Larson BC (1996) Forest stand dynamics: updated edition. Wiley, New York, p 520Google Scholar
  11. Prusinkiewicz P, Hammel M, Hanan J, Mech R (1996) Visual models of plant development. In: Rozenberg G, Salomaa A (eds) Handbook of formal languages, vol. III: beyond words. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc, New York, pp 535–597Google Scholar
  12. Van der Heijden GWAM, de Visser PHB, Heuvelink E (2007) Measurements for functional-structural plant models. In: Vos J, Marcelis LFM, de Visser PHB, Struik PC, Evers JB (eds) Functional-structural plant modeling in crop production. Wageningen UR Frontis Series, vol 22. Springer, Berlin, pp 13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Watanabe T, Hanan JS, Room PM et al (2005) Rice morphogenesis and plant architecture: measurement, specification and the reconstruction of structural development by 3D architectural modeling. Ann Bot 95(7):1131–1143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Surový
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nuno Ribeiro
    • 1
  • João Santos Pereira
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidade de ÉvoraEvoraPortugal
  2. 2.ISALisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations