Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 80, Issue 3, pp 333–340

Effect of silicon on growth and salinity stress of soybean plant grown under hydroponic system

  • S. K. Lee
  • E. Y. Sohn
  • M. Hamayun
  • J. Y. Yoon
  • I. J. Lee
Article

Abstract

Silicon (Si) is abundant in the soil, yet its role in plant biology has been poorly understood. The role of Si in soybean growth and its effectiveness in salt stress alleviation was investigated. Sodium metasilicate (Na2SiO3) was given as Si source to hydroponically grown soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). The plant growth attributes, i.e. plant height, plant fresh and dry biomass, chlorophyll contents and endogenous gibberellins (GAs) level improved with 2.5 mM Si, while endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and free proline contents were not affected as compared to control. Sodium chloride (NaCl) significantly decreased growth attributes and endogenous gibberellins levels but markedly enhanced ABA and proline contents of soybean leaves. An addition of Si to salt stressed plants substantially alleviated the adverse effects of NaCl on growth, as it enhanced endogenous gibberellins, while reduced the levels of ABA and proline. GAs analysis of soybean leaves also showed that both early C13 hydroxylation and non C13 hydroxylation pathways of gibberellin biosynthesis were operating in soybean. The major GA biosynthesis pathway was identified as non C13 hydroxylation, which led to the formation of bioactive GA4. Current study suggests that Si application alleviates the detrimental effect of salinity stress on growth and development of soybean.

Keywords

Abscisic acid Gibberellins Proline Salinity alleviation Soybean Silicon 

References

  1. Adatia MH, Besford RT (1986) The effects of silicon on cucumber plants grown in recirculating nutrient solution. Ann Bot 58:343–351Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad P, Jhon R (2005) Effect of salt stress on growth and biochemical parameters of Pisum sativum L. Arch Agron Soil Sci 51:665–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-aghabary K, Zhu Z, Qinhua S (2004) Influence of silicon supply on chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzyme activities in tomato plants under salt stress. J Plant Nutr 27:2101–2115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amzallag GN, Lerner HR, Poljakoff-Mayber A (1990) Induction of increased salt tolerance in Sorghum to high salinity. J Exp Bot 41:29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anuradha S, Rao SSR (2003) Application of brassinosteroids to rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) reduced the impact of salt stress on growth and improved photosynthetic pigment levels and nitrate reductase activity. Plant Growth Reg 40:29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashraf M (1994) Breeding for salinity tolerance proteins in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 13:17–42Google Scholar
  7. Ashraf M, Karim F, Rasul E (2002) Interactive effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) and salt stress on growth, ion accumulation and photosynthetic capacity of two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Plant Growth Reg 36:49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil 39:205–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bohm W (1979) Methods of studying root systems. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  10. Boucaud J, Unger IA (1976) Hormonal control of germination under saline conditions of three halophyte taxa in genus Suaeda. Physiol Plant 36:197–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyer JA (1982) Plant productivity and environment. Science 218:443–448CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen T, Gusta L (1983) Abscisic acid-induced freezing resistance in cultured plant cells. Plant Physiol 73:71–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chon SU, Park JH, Choi WY, Jung SY (2003) Differential physiological responses of soybean. Korea Soybean Dig 20:17–27Google Scholar
  14. Datnoff LE, Deren CW, Snyder GH (1997) Silicon fertilization for disease management of rice in Florida. Crop Prot 16:525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Epstein E (1994) The anomaly of silicon in plant biology. Proc Nat Acad Sci 91:11–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Epstein E (1999) Silicon. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:641–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fischbach MA, Clardy J (2007) One pathway, many products. Nat Chem Biol 3:353–355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gaskin P, MacMillan J (1991) GC-MS of gibberellins and related compounds: methodology and a library of reference spectra. Cantocks Enterprises, Bristol, UKGoogle Scholar
  19. Gonzalez EM, Galvez L, Arrese-Igor C (2001) Abscisic acid induces a decline in nitrogen fixation that involves leghemoglobin, but is independent of sucrose synthase activity. J Exp Bot 52:285–293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hamayun M, Khan SA, Khan AL, Tang DS, Hussain J, Ahmad B, Anwar Y, Lee IJ (2010) Growth promotion of cucumber by pure cultures of gibberellin-producing phoma sp. GAH7. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. doi:10.1007/s11274-009-0248-3
  21. Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1950) The water culture method for growing plants without soil. Calif Expt Sta Circ 347:1–39Google Scholar
  22. Kamboj JS, Browning G, Blake PS, Quinlan JD, Baker DA, Kamboj JS (1999) GC-MS SIM analysis of abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in shoot bark of apple root stocks. J Plant Growth Reg 28:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kang DJ, Seo YJ, Lee JD, Ishii R, Kim KU, Shin DH, Park SK, Jang SW, Lee IJ (2005) Jasmonic acid differentially affects growth, ion uptake and abscisic acid concentration in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice cultivars. J Agron Crop Sci 191:273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kavi Kishor PB, Sangam S, Amrutha RN, Sri Laxmi P, Naidu KR, Rao KRSS, Rao S, Reddy P, Theriappan P, Sreenivasulu N (2005) Regulation of proline biosynthesis, degradation, uptake and transport in higher plants: its implications in plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Curr Sci 88:424–438Google Scholar
  25. Khadri M, Tejera NA, Lluch C (2006) Alleviation of salt stress in common bean by exogenous abscisic acid supply. J Plant Growth Reg 25:110–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kim HY, Lee IJ, Hamayun M, Kim JT, Won JG, Hwang IC, Kim KU (2007) Effect of prohexadione calcium on growth components and endogenous gibberellins contents of rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Agron Crop Sci 193:445–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. La Rosa DC, Hasegawa D, Rhodes D, Clithero MJ, Watad AEA, Bressan RA (1987) Abscisic acid stimulated osmotic adjustment and involvement in adaptation of tobacco cells to NaCl. Plant Physiol 85:174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee IJ, Foster KR, Morgan PW (1998) Photoperiod control of gibberellin levels and flowering in Sorghum. Plant Physiol 116:1003–1010CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Liang YC (1998) Effects of Si on leaf ultrastructure, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity in barley under salt stress. Pedosphere 8:289–296Google Scholar
  30. Ma JF, Takahashi E (2002) Soil, fertilizer and plant silicon research in Japan. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  31. Meloni D, Gulotta M, Martinez C, Oliva M (2004) The effects of salt stress on growth, nitrate reduction and proline and glycinebetaine accumulation in Prosopis alba. Braz J Plant Physiol 16:39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Miyake Y, Takahashi E (1982) Effect of silicon on the growth of cucumber plants in a solution culture. Jpn J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 53:15–22Google Scholar
  33. Montero E, Cabot C, Barcelo J, Poschenrieder C (1997) Endogenous abscisic acid levels are linked to decreased growth of bush bean plants treated with NaCl. Physiol Plant 101:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Murillo-Amador B, Yamada S, Yamaguchi T, Rueda-Puente E, Avila-Serrano N, Garcia-Hernandez JL, Lopez-Aguilar R, Troyo-Dieguez E, Nieto-Garibay A (2007) Influence of calcium silicate on growth, physiological parameters and mineral nutrition in two legume species under salt stress. J Agron Crop Sci 193:413–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Qi QG, Rose PA, Abrams GD, Taylor DC, Abrams SR, Cutler AJ (1998) (+)-Abscisic acid metabolism, 3-ketoacyl-coenzyme A synthase gene expression, and very-long-chain monounsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Brassica napus embryos. Plant Physiol 117:979–987CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ritchie S, Gilroy S (1998) Gibberellins: regulating genes and germination. New Phytol 140:363–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ross JJ, Murfet IC, Reid JB (1997) Gibberellin mutants. Plant Physiol 100:550–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Seo HS, Kim SK, Jang SW, Choo YS, Sohn EY, Lee IJ (2005) Effect of jasmonic acid on endogenous gibberellins and abscisic acid in rice under NaCl stress. Biologia Plant 49:447–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Serrano R, Gaxiola R (1994) Microbial models and salt stress tolerance in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 13:121–138Google Scholar
  40. Sponsel V, Hedden V (2004) Gibberellin biosynthesis and inactivation. In: Davies P (ed) Plant hormones: biosynthesis, signal transduction, action!. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 63–94Google Scholar
  41. Székely G, Ábrahám E, CséploÁ RigoG, Zsigmond L, Csiszár J, Ayaydin F, Strizhov N, Jásik J, Schmelzer E, Koncz C, Szabados L (2008) Duplicated P5CS genes of Arabidopsis play distinct roles in stress regulation and developmental control of proline biosynthesis. Plant J 53:11–28CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Taiz L, Zeiger E (2002) Plant physiology third edition. Sinauer Associates Inc Publishers, USA, pp 468–469Google Scholar
  43. Vinocur B, Altman A (2005) Recent advances in engineering plant tolerance to abiotic stress: achievement and limitations. Cur Opinion Biotechnol 16:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang XQ, Ullah H, Jones AM, Assmann SM (2001) G protein regulation of ion channels and abscisic acid signalling in Arabidopsis guard cells. Science 292:2070–2072CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Yoon BS, Jin CJ, Un PS, Cho DH (2005) Change in photosynthesis, proline content, and osmotic potential of Corn seedling under high-saline condition. Korean J Crop Sci 50:28–31Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Lee
    • 1
  • E. Y. Sohn
    • 1
  • M. Hamayun
    • 1
  • J. Y. Yoon
    • 1
  • I. J. Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesKyungpook National UniversityDaeguKorea

Personalised recommendations