Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 67, Issue 2, pp 115–122 | Cite as

Variation in Seed and Seedling Traits of Celtis australis, a Multipurpose Tree, in Central Himalaya, India



Seeds of Celtis australis were collected from 13 different sources, ranging from 550 to 1980 masl, in Central Himalaya, India. Significant (p = 0.05) variations were observed for seed traits among provenances. However, among various characters, seed weight exhibited maximum variation between seed populations compared to other morphological characters. Between provenances, seed weight ranged from 47.8 to 83.1 g/1000 seed, with mean value of 66.9 ± 10.7 g/1000 seed. Significant (p = 0.01) positive correlation was found between morphological characters of seeds including seed weight and elevational range of seed source. For one year old seedlings, average shoot and root growth was 61.1 ± 13.3 and 30.5 ± 5.4 cm, respectively, irrespective of provenance variation. Inter-comparing biomass yield of the seedlings with altitude, average biomass production was 8.4 ± 2.5, 9.4 ± 3.3 and 12.7 ± 1.7 g/plant, respectively, for low (550–1000 masl), middle (1050–1250 masl) and high (1350–1980 masl) altitudinal populations. Significant (p = 0.01) positive correlation between growth performance of seedlings and altitude of the seed source was recorded. Across the provenances, shoots had the highest proportion of total biomass (42.3%), followed by leaves (32.6%) and roots (24.6%). Among various provenances, Badiyargaon, Agroda, Guptakashi, Jakholi, Gajeli, Srinagar and Palampur populations produced heavier seedlings and grew faster compared to seedlings of other sources.


Altitudinal gradient Biomass yield Germination Seed morphology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bewley, J.D., Black, M. 1994Seeds: Physiology of Development and GerminationPlenum PerseNew York211Google Scholar
  2. Bhatt, I.D., Rawat, R.S., Dhar, U. 2000Improvement in seed germination of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham ex d. Don.– a high value tree species of Kumaun HimalayaIndiaSeed Sci. Technol.28597605Google Scholar
  3. Bhatt, B.P., Verma, N.D. 2002Some Multipurpose Tree Species for Agroforestry SystemsICAR Research Complex for NEH RegionUmiam, Meghalaya148Google Scholar
  4. Bindroo, B.B., Tiku, A.K., Pandit, R.K. 1990Variation of some traits in mulberry varietiesInd. For.106320323Google Scholar
  5. Chauhan, S. 1998Germination behaviour of three Terminalia speciesH.N.B. Garhwal UniversitySrinagar Garhwal, Uttaranchal141D.Phil ThesisGoogle Scholar
  6. FAO1985A guide of Forest Seed Handling: With Special Reference to Tropics, FAO Forestry paper No 22/2FAORome, Italy379Google Scholar
  7. Gairola, M., Rana, U., Nautiyal, A.R. 1990Biomass production potential of some mountain tree species under high density plantationsJ. Tree Sci.97577Google Scholar
  8. Gaur, R.D. 1999Flora of the District Garhwal Northwest Himalaya with Ethnobotanical NotesTransmedia Publication CentreSrinagar Garhwal, Uttaranchal, India811Google Scholar
  9. Gutterman, Y. 1992

    Maternal effects on seed during development

    Fenner, M. eds. SeedsThe Ecology of Regeneration in Plant CommunitiesWallingford CAB International2759
    Google Scholar
  10. ISTA1999International Rules for Seed Testing. Seed Science and Technology, 27, SupplementZurichSwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Khalil, M.A.K. 1986Variation in seed quality and some juvenile characters of while spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss]Silvae Genet.357886Google Scholar
  12. Kumar, N., Toky, O.P. 1996Variation in seed germination and juvenile growth of 12 provenances of Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth in arid IndiaInd. J. For.19123128Google Scholar
  13. Mathur, R.S., Sharna, K.K., Rawat, M.M.S. 1984Germination behaviour of various provenances of Acacia nilotica subspecies indicaInd. For.110435449Google Scholar
  14. Meskel, E.W., Sinclair, F.L. 2000Growth variability in Senegalese provenance of Acacia nilotica spp. tomentosaAgrofor. Syst.48207213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Murali, K.S. 1997Patterns of seed sizegermination and seed viability of tropical tree species in Southern IndiaBiotropica29271279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nautiyal, A.R., Thapliyal, P. 1987A note on seed germination in Indian mountain tree speciesHimalayan Res. & Dev.64143Google Scholar
  17. Negi, A.K., Todaria, N.P. 1997Effect of seed size and weight on germination pattern and seedling development of some multipurpose tree species of Garhwal HimalayaInd. For.1233236Google Scholar
  18. Ngulube, M.R., Mwasbumba, L. 1994Evaluation of Gliricidia sepium provenance for Agroforestry in MalawiaIntermat. Tree Crops J.8110Google Scholar
  19. Rehfildt, G.E., Wycoff, W.R. 1981Periodicity in shoot elongation among populations of Pinus contarta from the northern Rocky MountainsAnn. Bot.48371377Google Scholar
  20. Salazar, R. 1989Genetic variation of 16 provenances of Acacia mangium at nursery level in Turrialba Costa RicaComm. For. Rev.68263272Google Scholar
  21. Saleem, M., Bhardwaj, S.D., Kaushal, A.N. 1994Effect of seed weightnitrogen source and split application on growth of Celtis australis LIndian Forester120109118Google Scholar
  22. Simonne, E., Simonne, A., Boozer, R. 1999Yieldear characteristics and consumer acceptance of selected white sweet corn varieties in the southern United StatesHortic. Technol.9289293Google Scholar
  23. Singh, N., Pokhriyal, T.C. 2000Biomass distribution pattern in relation to seed source variation in Dalbergia sissoo seedlingsAnn. For.8238249Google Scholar
  24. Sniezko, R.A., Stewart, H.T.L. 1989Range wise provenance variation in growth and nutrition of Acacia albida seedlings propagated in ZimbabweFor. Ecol. Manage.27179197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Subba, D.B., Gurung, H.B., Tamang, B.B. 1996Seasonally of polyphenalic compounds in nine important tree fodder in the eastern hills of NepalVet. Rev.11810Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ForestryH.N.B. Garhwal UniversitySrinagar (Garhwal)India
  2. 2.Agroforestry DivisionICAR Research Complex for NEH RegionUmiamIndia

Personalised recommendations