, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 583–591 | Cite as

Pollen dispersion in Myrica esculenta (Myricaceae): a dioecious anemophilous tree species of Himalaya

  • Vinod Prasad KhanduriEmail author
  • Arun Sukumaran
Original Paper


Myrica esculenta is an important dioecious medicinal tree species of the Himalayan region. The role of floral morphology and pollen flow between the sexes in M. esculenta is unknown. Therefore, a study on floral morphology, pollen production, germination and pollen dispersal in M. esculenta was undertaken in a Himalayan temperate forest during 2015–2016 for one reproductive season. Pollen production and dispersion were observed in two habitat conditions, viz. tree outside forest (TOF) and natural forest (NF). Pollen flow was observed by exposing jelly-coated slides at geometrically increasing distances under two habitat conditions, i.e. TOF and NF. The pollen production per tree was significantly higher in TOF conditions (two times more than the NF). The total pollen production in the trees of outside forest was 3.10 × 1011 ± 0.58 × 1011 pollen per tree which was 1.60 × 1011 ± 0.42 × 1011 pollen per tree in natural forest condition. The fruit set was 6% more in TOF condition than the NF, indicating pollen limitation fecundity in M. esculenta. Pollen dispersal strongly differed between TOF and NF.


Pollination Pollen viability Pollen germination Pollen migration Myrica Himalaya 



The authors are thankful to all the three anonymous reviewers of the earlier draft of this manuscript for their valuable suggestions to improve the MS.

Authors’ contribution

VPK and AS conceived the study, set up the experiment, conducted fieldwork and drafted the initial manuscript; VPK revised the MS thoroughly. Both authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of ForestryVCSG Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and ForestryRanichauri, Tehri GarhwalIndia

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