Allergen-specific immunotherapy, novel drugs and biologicals: hopes from the difficult-to-treat allergic child

  • Carla Mastrorilli
  • Angelica Santoro
  • Carlo CaffarelliEmail author
Original Paper


In the last decades, significant progresses have been reached in the management of atopic diseases in childhood. Several approaches have been proposed in patients affected by moderate-to-severe atopic diseases. Severe asthma and atopic dermatitis are poorly known with different underlying phenotypes and endotypes, and they may require further cares with biological therapies. Omalizumab, anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, is effective and safe in patients with atopic diseases, especially uncontrolled asthma and chronic urticaria. Anti-IL-5 drugs including mepolizumab, reslizumab and benralizumab are effective in resistant eosinophilic asthma. In patients with uncontrolled atopic dermatitis, dupilumab is of benefit. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) represents the only treatment attaining immunologic tolerance and sustaining improvement in symptoms. Both subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapies are characterized by a short-term and a long-term efficacy, as demonstrated by a reduced immunologic reactivity after discontinuation. Component-resolved diagnosis has been found an essential diagnostic tool potentially able to increase the efficacy of AIT in polysensitized children, establishing a precise AIT prescription for patient genuinely sensitized to allergens. The future care of allergic diseases in childhood requires an individualized approach to achieve a patient-tailored therapy for difficult-to-treat atopic diseases.


Allergy Atopic dermatitis Children Endotype Immunotherapy Severe asthma 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinica Pediatrica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Department of Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly

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