Normal and dusty days comparison of culturable indoor airborne bacteria in Ahvaz, Iran
- 657 Downloads
Important sources of chemical and biological indoor pollutants include outdoor air, the human body and human activities, emission from materials, furnishings, appliances and use of commodities. The main purpose of this study was to identify culturable indoor airborne bacteria in normal and dust event days in indoor environments of a school, a hospital and a university in Ahvaz city, which individuals such as children, teenagers, adolescences and old people had activity there. Samples were collected using the biostage sampler, an Andersen-based method, with a flow rate of 28.3 l/min, from July 2010 to March 2011. Temperature and humidity were measured and registered in each time of sampling. The identification of bacteria was performed to genus level by using appropriate methods and standard biochemical tests. Gram-positive bacteria in both normal and dust event days with more than 90 % had the highest concentration and frequency. Predominant bacteria in normal and dust event days were Staphylococcus spp. (72.9, 87.9 %), Streptomyces spp. (60.9, 62.1 %), Bacillus spp. (94, 89 %) and Micrococcus spp. (65.4, 71.2 %), respectively. The highest concentrations of bacteria in normal and dust event days were in winter. The range of bacteria in normal and dust event days were 0–4,800 and 210–10,000 cfu/m3, respectively. There was a significant difference between the concentration of bacteria in normal and dust event days (p = 0.001) and also a significant association was found between the concentration of total bacteria with temperature and humidity (p < 0.05). The concentration of bacteria in dust event days was 1.8 times higher than normal days. Consequently, the concentrations of bacteria in all three sampling sites were higher in dust event days than normal days indicating the impact of dust storms on increased bacterial concentration in indoor environment.
KeywordsBiostage sampler Backward trajectory Khuzestan province Indoor air HYSPLIT
This paper is issued from an integrated research of ETRC-9102 as a project number and M.Sc. thesis of Zahra Soleimani. Financial support of both was provided by Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS).
- ACGIH. (1989), Guidelines for the assessment of bioaerosols in the indoor environment. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Bioaerosol Committee. Cincinnati; Contract No: Document Number.Google Scholar
- Andersen, A. A. (1958). New sampler for the collection, sizing, and enumeration of viable airborne particles. Journal of Bacteriology, 76(5), 471–484.Google Scholar
- Augustowska, M., & Dutkiewicz, J. (2006). Variability of airborne microflora in a hospital ward within a period of one year. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 13, 99–106.Google Scholar
- Derakhshandeh, M., Rostami, M. H., Goudarzi, G., & Rostami, M. Z. (2014). Evaluation of tendency to migration in the case of Ahvaz dust storm occurrence: A public survey. Advances in Civil and Environmental Engineering, 02(1), 55–69.Google Scholar
- Goudarzi, G., Mohammadi, M. J., Ahmadi-Angali, K., Neissi, A., Babaei, A., Mohammadi, B., et al. (2012). Estimation of health effects attributed to NO2 exposure using AirQ model. Archives of Hygiene Sciences, 1(2), 59–66.Google Scholar
- Goudarzi, G., Shirmardi, M., Khodarahmi, F., Hashemi-Shakraki, A., Alavi, N., Ahmadi-Ankali, K., et al. (2014). Particulate matter and bacteria characteristics of the Middle East dust (MED) storms over Ahvaz, Iran. Aerobiologia. DOI 10.1007/s10453-014-9333-7.
- Goudarzi, G., Zallaghi, E., Neissi, A., Ankali, K. A., Saki, A., Babaei, A. A., et al. (2013). Cardiopulmonary mortalities and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attributed to ozone air pollution. Archives of Hygiene sciences, 2(2), 62–72.Google Scholar
- Heidari-Farsani, M., Shirmardi, M., Goudarzi, G., Alavi-Bakhtiarvand, N., Ahmadi-Ankali, K., Zallaghi, E., et al. (2014). The evaluation of heavy metals concentration related to PM10 in ambient air of Ahvaz city, Iran. Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research, 1(2), 120–128.Google Scholar
- Lyles, M. B., Fredrickson, H. L., Bednar, A. J., Fannin, H. B., & Sobecki, T. M. (2005). The chemical, biological, and mechanical characterization of airborne micro-particulates from Kuwait. Abstr. 8th Ann. Force Health Protect. Conf., session 2586, Louisville, KY.Google Scholar
- Massoum, Beigi H., Ghiaseddin, M., Shariat, M., & Mirzaei, S. A. (1998). Survey of the aerobic flora in the air central district of Tehran. Kowsar Medical Journal, 2(3), 104–197. [In Persian].Google Scholar
- Mcneil, M. M., & Brown, J. M. (1994). The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 7(3), 357–417.Google Scholar
- Naddafi, K., Rezaei, S., Nabizadeh, R., Yonesian, M., & Jabbari, H. (2009). Density of airborne bacteria in a children’s hospital in Tehran. Iranian Journal of Health and Environment, 1(2), 75–80. In Persian.Google Scholar
- National Environmental Agency, Institute of Environmental Epidemiology, Ministry of the Environment. (1996). Guidelines for good indoor air quality in office premises. First edition, pp 44.http://www.bca.gov.sg/greenmark/others/NEA_Office_IAQ_Guidelines.pdf (NEA).
- Shahsavani, A., Naddafi, K., Haghighifard, N. J., Mesdaghinia, A., Yunesian, M., Nabizadeh, R., et al. (2012a). Characterization of ionic composition of TSP and PM10 during the Middle Eastern dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Iran. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 184(11), 6683–6692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shahsavani, A., Naddafi, K., Jafarzade Haghighifard, N., Mesdaghinia, A., Yunesian, M., Nabizadeh, R., et al. (2012b). The evaluation of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) events in Ahvaz, Iran from April through September 2010. Journal of Arid Environments, 77, 72–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Verma, P., Brown, J. M., Nunez, V. H., Morey, R. E., Steigerwalt, A. G., & Pellegrini, H. A. (2006). Native valve endocarditis due to Gordonia polyisoprenivorans:case report and review of literature of bloodstream infection caused by Gordonia species. Journal of clinical microbiology, 44(5), 1905–1908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yildis, O., & Doganay, M. (2006). Actinomycoses and nocardia pulmonary infections. Current opinion in pulmonary medicine, 12(3), 224–234.Google Scholar