Advertisement

Aerobiologia

, 24:89 | Cite as

Selected airborne allergenic fungal spores and meteorological factors in Szczecin, Poland, 2004–2006

  • Agnieszka Grinn-GofrońEmail author
  • Aneta Mika
Original Paper

Abstract

Airborne fungal spore concentrations in Szczecin, Poland, were studied between 2004 and 2006 with the objective of determining a seasonal variation in the concentrations of selected fungal spore types in relation to meteorological parameters. The presence of spores of five taxa, namely, Cladosporium, Ganoderma, Alternaria, Leptosphaeria and Didymella, was recorded using a volumetric method (Hirst type). Fungal spores were present in the air in large numbers during the summer, with the highest concentrations recorded mainly in June, July and August. The peak concentrations of two of the studied spore types, Ganoderma and Alternaria, occurred in August, while the concentrations of Cladosporium, Leptosphaeria and Didymella spores were the highest in July. Multiple regression analysis was performed for three fungal seasons—2004, 2005 and 2006. Spore concentration was found to be positively correlated with the minimum temperature. For some spore types, there was also a significant correlation between concentrations, relative humidity and rain.

Keywords

Allergenic fungal spores Meteorological parameters Poland Seasonal variation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was financed by KBN Grant No. 2, P04G 099 29 in the years 2005 and 2006.

References

  1. Bush, R. K. (1989). Aerobiology of pollen and fungal allergens. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 84, 1120–1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bush, R. K., & Prochnau, J. J. (2004). Alternaria-induced asthma. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 113, 227–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Calderon, C., Lacey, J., McCartney, H. A., & Rosas, I. (1995). Seasonal and diurnal variation of airborne basidiomycete spore concentrations in Mexico City. Grana, 34, 260–268.Google Scholar
  4. Chakrabatory, P., Gupta-Bhattacharya, S., & Chanda, S. (2003). Aeromycoflora of an agricultural farm in West Bengal, India: A five-year study (1994–1999). Grana, 42, 248–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Corden, J. M. (2005). The Midlands Asthma and Allergy Research Association–MAARA. Aerobiology the way forward. AEROTOP, Fungal workshop. Poznań, 2005Google Scholar
  6. Corden, J. M., & Millington, W. M. (1994). Didymella ascospores in Derby. Grana, 33, 104–107.Google Scholar
  7. Cosentino, S., Pisano, P. L., Fadda, M. F., & Palmas, F. (1990). Pollen and mould allergy: Aerobiological survey in the atmosphere of Cagliari, Italy (1986–1988). Annals of Allergy, 65, 393–399.Google Scholar
  8. Cutten, A. E. C., Hasnain, S. M., Bai, T. R., & McKay, E. J. (1988). The basidiomycete Ganoderma and asthma; collection, quantitation and immunogenicity of the spores. The New Zealand Medical Journal, 101, 361–363.Google Scholar
  9. D’Amato, G., Chatzigeorgiou, G., Corsico, R., Gioulekas, D., Jäger, L., & Jäger, S. (1997). Evaluation of the prevalence of skin prick test positivity to Alternaria and Cladosporium in patients with suspected respiratory allergy. A European multicenter study promoted by the subcommittee on aerobiology and environmental aspects of inhalant allergens of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology. Allergy, 52, 711–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diaz, M. R., Iglesias, I., & Jato, V. (1998). Seasonal variation of airborne fungal spore concentrations in a vineyard of North-West Spain. Aerobiologia, 14, 221–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ebner, M. R., Haselwandter, K., & Frank, A. (1992). Indoor and outdoor incidence of airborne fungal allergens at low- and high-altitude alpine environments. Mycological Research, 96, 117–124.Google Scholar
  12. Fernandez, D., Valencia, R. M., Molnar, T., Vega, A., & Sagúes, E. (1998). Daily and seasonal variations of Alternaria and Cladosporium airborne spores in León (North-West, Spain). Aerobiologia, 14, 215–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fillipello Marchisio, V., Airaudi, D., & Barchi, C. (1997). One-year monitoring of the airborne fungal community in a suburb of Turin (Italy) and assessment of its functional relations with the environment. Mycological Research, 101, 821–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gaweł, J., Halota, A., Pisiewicz, K., Kurzawa, R., Radliński, J., & Doniec, Z. (1996). Allergenic airborne sporomorphs calendar for Rabka (southern Poland), 1991–1995. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 3, 87–98.Google Scholar
  15. Gregory, P. H., & Hirst, J. M. (1952). Possible role of basidiospores as airborne allergens. Nature, 170, 414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Halawagy, M. H. (1994). Fungal airspora of Kuwait city, Kuwait. Grana, 33, 340–345.Google Scholar
  17. Hasnain, S. M. (1993). Influence of meteorological factors on the airspora. Grana, 32, 184–188.Google Scholar
  18. Hasnain, S. M., Wilson, J. D., & Newhook, F. J. (1985). Allergy to basidiospores: Immunologic studies. The New Zealand Medical Journal, 98, 393–396.Google Scholar
  19. Hjelmroos, M. (1993). Relationship between airborne fungal spore presence and weather variables. Grana, 32, 40–47.Google Scholar
  20. Infante-Garcia-Pantaleon, F., Galan-Soldevilla, C., Dominquez-Vilches, E., Angulo-Romero, J., & Mediavilla-Molina, A. (1992). Air spore microfungi in dwellings of south of Spain. Aerobiologia, 8, 245–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kasprzyk, I., Rzepowska, B., & Wasylów, M. (2004). Fungal spores in the atmosphere of Rzeszów (South-East Poland). Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 11, 285–289.Google Scholar
  22. Konopińska, A. (2004). Monitoring of Alternaria Ness and Cladosporium Link airborne spores in Lublin (Poland) in 2002. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 11, 347–349.Google Scholar
  23. Kurkela, T. (1997). The number of Cladosporium conidia in the air in different weather conditions. Grana, 36, 54–61.Google Scholar
  24. Larsen, L., & Gravesen, S. (1991). Seasonal variation of outdoor airborne viable microfungi in Copenhagen, Denmark. Grana, 30, 467–471.Google Scholar
  25. Lehrer, S. B., Hughes, J. M., Altman, L. C., Bousquet, J., Davies, R. J., Gell, L., et al. (1994). Prevalence of basidiomycete allergy in the USA and Europe and its relationship to allergic respiratory symptoms. Allergy, 49, 460–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Levetin, E. (1990). Studies on airborne basidiospores. Aerobiologia, 6, 177–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Levetin, E. (1991). Identification and concentration of airborne basidiospores. Grana, 30, 123–128.Google Scholar
  28. Li, D., & Kendrick, B. (1994). Functional relationships between airborne fungal spores and environmental factors in Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, as detected by canonical correspondence analysis. Grana, 33, 166–176.Google Scholar
  29. Li, D., & Kendrick, B. (1995). A year-round outdoor aeromycological study in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Grana, 34, 199–207.Google Scholar
  30. Mitakakis, T. Z., & Guest, D. I. (2001). A fungal spore calendar for the atmosphere of Melbourne, Australia, for the year 1993. Aerobiologia, 17, 171–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Myszkowska, D., Stępalska, D., Obtułowicz, K., & Porębski, G. (2002). The relationship between airborne pollen and fungal spore concentrations and seasonal pollen allergy symptoms in Cracow in 1997–1999. Aerobiologia, 18, 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nikkels, A. H., Terstegge, P., & Spieksma, F. Th. M. (1996). Ten types of microscopically identifiable airborne fungal spores at Leiden, The Netherlands. Aerobiologia, 12, 107–112.Google Scholar
  33. Rapiejko, P., Lipiec, A., Wojdas, A., & Jurkiewicz, D. (2004). Threshold pollen concentration necessary to evoke allergic symptoms. International Review of Allergology & Clinical Immunology, 10, 91–94.Google Scholar
  34. Resano, A., Sanz, M. L., & Oehling, A. (1998). Sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium in asthmatic patients and its in vitro diagnostic confirmation. Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology, 8, 353–358.Google Scholar
  35. Richardson, M. J. (1996). The occurrence of airborne Didymella spores in Edinburgh. Mycological Research, 100, 213–216.Google Scholar
  36. Shaneen, I. (1992). Aeromycology of Amman area, Jordan. Grana, 31, 223–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Singh, A., Gangal, S. V., & Singh, A. B. (1994). Airborne fungi in the hospitals of metropolitan Delhi. Aerobiologia, 10, 11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stępalska, D., Harmata, K., Kasprzyk, I., Myszkowska, D., & Stach, A. (1999). Occurrence of airborne Cladosporium and Alternaria spores in Southern and Central Poland in 1995–1996. Aerobiologia, 15, 39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stępalska, D., & Wołek, J. (2005). Variation in fungal spore concentration of selected taxa associated to weather condition in Cracow, Poland, in 1997. Aerobiologia, 21, 43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tarlo, S. M., Bell, B., Srinivasan, J., Dolovich, J., & Hargreave, F. E. (1979). Human sensitization to Ganoderma antigen. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 64, 43–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Taxonomy and PhytogeographyUniversity of SzczecinSzczecinPoland
  2. 2.Polish Physical SocietySzczecinPoland

Personalised recommendations