Aerobiologia

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 285–293 | Cite as

Aerobiological monitoring applications in the Etnean volcanic plume evaluation (Mt. Etna, Sicily) and correlation with allergopathies

  • Benedetto Diana
  • Anna Maria Finocchiaro
  • Santo La Delfa
  • Giuseppe Patanè
  • Ferdinando Presti
  • Maria Timpanaro
  • Giovanni Tringali
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper describes the study of the application of a Hirst-type impact volumetric sampler (IVS) in the sampling of volcanic ash continuously emitted by Mt. Etna. This methodology is commonly used for measuring the atmospheric concentration of airborne pollen grains and fungal spores. This study was undertaken between April 2003 and January 2005, when a series of ash emissions occurred; moreover, during this period, namely on 7 September 2004, there was an eruption from various fractures located in the higher eastern flank of the volcano. The airborne volcanic ashes involving the lower south-eastern flank of Mt. Etna were monitored by means of an IVS stationed in the town of Acireale. In some people volcanic ash can trigger predisposing factors linked with allergens, and an allergic response may occur. After exposure, immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are produced and released into the bloodstream and they can, therefore, be identified by haematological analysis. In this study we compared the number of ash events recorded by our IVS and the number of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) values found in the population living on or near this volcano sector. A correlation was established between air pollution from volcanic ash and IgE values over a period of 22 months.

Keywords

Aerobiology IgE values Impact volumetric sampler Mt. Etna volcano Volcanic ash 

References

  1. Allard, P., Carbonnelle, J., Dajlevic, D., Le Bronec, J., Morel, P., Robe, M. C., Maurenas, J. M., Faivre-Pierret, R., Martin, D., Sabroux, J. C., & Zettwoog P. (1991). Eruptive and diffuse emissions of CO2 from Mount Etna. Nature, 351, 387–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andronico, D., Branca, S., Calvari, S., Burton, M., Caltabiano, T., Corsaro, R. A., Del Carlo, P., Grafì, G., Lodato, L., Miraglia, L., Murè, F., Neri, M., Pecora, E., Pompilio, M., Salerno, G., & Spampinato, L. (2005). A multi-disciplinary study of the 2002–03 Etna eruption: insights into a complex plumbing system. Bulletin of Volcanology, 67, 314–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baxter, P. J., Bonadonna, C., Dupree, R., Hards, V. L., Kohn, S. C., Murphy, M. D., Nichols, A., Nicholson, R. A., Norton, G., Searl, A., Sparks, R. S., & Vickers, B. P. (1999). Cristobalite in volcanic ash of the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, British West Indies. Science, 283, 1142–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behncke, B., & Neri, M. (2003). The July–August 2001 eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily). Bulletin of Volcanology, 65, 461–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chester, D. K., Duncan, A. M., Guest, J. E., & Kilburn, C. R. J. (1985). Mount Etna: The anatomy of a volcano. London: Chapman & Hall, p 404Google Scholar
  6. Custovic, A., Murray, C. S., Gore, R. B., & Woodcock, A. (2002). Controlling indoor allergens. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, 88(5), 432–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dockery, D. W., Pope, C. A. III., Xu, X., Spengler, J. D., Ware, J. H., Fay, M. E., Ferris, B. G., & Speizer, F. E. (1993). An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 1753–1759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Durand, M., & Grattan., J. (1999). Extensive respiratory health effects of volcanogenic dry fog in 1783 inferred from documentary sources. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 21, 371–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Finocchiaro, A. M. (2005). Esposizione all’aeroparticolato etneo e insorgenza di allergopatie nel territorio acese. Bachelor thesis, University of Catania–IRMA Acireale.Google Scholar
  10. Hatch, G.E., Boykin, E., Graham, J.A., Lewtas, J., Pott, F., Loud, K., & Mumford, J.L. (1985). Inhalable particles and pulmonary host defense: in vitro effects of ambient air and combustion particles. Environmental Research, 36, 67–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hirst, J. M. (1952). An automatic volumetric spore trap. Annals of Applied Biology, 39, 257–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kieffer, G. (1985). Evolution structurale et dynamique d’un grand volcan polygénique: stade d’edification et activité actuelle de l’Etna. PhD Thesis, Univ Clermont-Ferrand II, pp. 1–97.Google Scholar
  13. Klink, M., Cline, M. G., Halonen, M., & Burrows, B. (1990). Problems in defining normal limits for serum IgE. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 85(2), 440–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. La Delfa, S., Patanè, G., Clocchiatti, R., Joron, J. L., & Tanguy, J.C. (2001). Activity of Mt. Etna February 1999 fissure eruption: Inferred mehanism from seismological and geochemical data. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 105, 121-139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. La Delfa, S., Innocente, V., Patanè, G., & Tanguy J. C. (2003). Correlation between local stress field and summit eruption of Mt. Etna: the 27 March 1998 event. Geologica Carpathica, 54, 251–260.Google Scholar
  16. McConnell, R., Berhane, K., Gilliland, E., London, S. J., Vora, H., Avol, E., Gauderman, W. J., Margolis, H. G., Lurmann, F., Thomas, D. C., & Peters, J. H. (1999). Air pollution and bronchitic symptoms in Southern California children with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107, 757–760.Google Scholar
  17. Murray, J. B. (1990). High-level magma transport at Mount Etna volcano, as deduced from ground deformation measurements. In Magma transport and storage, Wiley, pp. 357–383Google Scholar
  18. Neri, M., Acocella, V., & Behncke B. (2003). The role of the Pernicana Fault System in the spreading of Mt. Etna (Italy) during the 2002–2003 eruption. Bulletin of Volcanology, 66, 417–430.Google Scholar
  19. Patanè, G., La Delfa, S., & Tanguy, J.C. (2004). L’Etna e il mondo dei vulcani. Maimone Editore Catania, 285 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Rojas-Ramos, M., Catalan-Vasquez, M., Martin-Del Pozzo, A. L., Garcia-Ojeda, E., Villalba-Caloca, J., & Perez-Neria, J. (2001). A seven months prospective study of the respiratory effects of exposure to ash from Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 23, 283–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tanguy, J.C., Condomines, M., & Kieffer G. (1997). Evolution of the Mount Etna magma: constraints on the present feeding system and eruptive mechanism. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 75, 251–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tanguy, J. C., Clocchiatti, R., La Delfa, S., & Patanè G. (2001). Etna (Italy): Strong June eruptions, an M 3.9 earthquake, copious July–August flank lavas, and a new cone. Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 26, N. 9; Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  23. Tanguy, J. C., Aubert, M., Clocchiatti, R., La Delfa, S., & Patanè, G. (2002). Etna (Italy): Witnesses saw N- and S- flank eruption begin at around 0200 on 27 October. Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 27, N. 11; Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  24. Vallyathan, V., Mentnech, M. S., Tucker, J. H., & Green, F. H. (1983). Pulmonary response to Mount Saint Helens’ volcanic ash. Environmental Research, 30, 361–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yano, E., Yokoyama, Y., & Nishii, S. (1986). Chronic pulmonary effects of volcanic ash: an epidemiological study. Archives of Environmental Health, 41, 94–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yunginger, J. W. (1988). Clinical significance of IgE. In E. Middleton et al. (Eds.), Allergy principles and practice, vol. 30, pp. 849–860.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benedetto Diana
    • 1
  • Anna Maria Finocchiaro
    • 1
  • Santo La Delfa
    • 2
    • 3
  • Giuseppe Patanè
    • 2
  • Ferdinando Presti
    • 3
  • Maria Timpanaro
    • 1
  • Giovanni Tringali
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Ricerca Medica ed AmbientaleAcirealeItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche—Università di CataniaCantaniaItaly
  3. 3.Osservatorio Meteorologico Geodinamico ed AmbientaleAcirealeItaly

Personalised recommendations