Advertisement

Testing salt stress on aquatic plants: effect of salt source and substrate

  • Mohsen TootoonchiEmail author
  • Lyn A. Gettys
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of industrial sand and commercial salts for mimicking brackish systems in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Many wetland and freshwater aquatic plants are adversely affected by salt stress and increased salinity concentrations. Sea level rise can increase salinity in aquatic ecosystems and shift vegetation compositions toward more salt-tolerant species. Many studies focus on salt tolerance mechanisms to understand the impacts of wetland salinization and saltwater intrusion. Ideally, natural substrates and seawater should be employed in these experiments to represent the natural environment, but acquiring seawater and field soil is not always feasible, so researchers use proxies to simulate these materials in greenhouse experiments. In this study, we evaluated the growth of Vallisneria americana and Hydrilla verticillata under four salinity levels (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 ppt) induced by four salt sources commonly used by researchers (seawater, Instant Ocean Aquarium Mix, laboratory-grade NaCl and Morton Sea Salt). Plants were grown in separate fertilized pots filled with field-collected soil or silica sand and were submersed in 60-L mesocosms filled with pond water. Salinity levels were increased gradually, and water level, salinity and pH were monitored every week. Our results showed that Instant Ocean Aquarium Mix is an appropriate proxy for inducing salinity in mesocosm experiments as its effects on plant biomass were similar to those produced in seawater. Substrate type did not affect the biomass of either plant species, which suggests that sand could be utilized in these types of experiments, provided plants are grown with sufficient fertilization.

Keywords

Sediment Aquatic macrophyte Salinity tolerance Elemental composition Osmotic stress Na toxicity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and by the United States Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture (HATCH projects FLA-FTL-005156 and FLA-FTL-005682). Field-collected plants and soil were obtained under the US Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Big Cypress, Permit # BICY-2017-SCI-0007. Mention of a trademark, proprietary product or vendor does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products or vendors that also may be suitable. We are indebted to Kyle Thayer, Ian Markovich and Joseph Sigmon for their wonderful assistance in the greenhouse and field. We also thank Hanzhuo Fu for laboratory analysis, James Colee for statistical consultation, Joshua Patterson for providing seawater and Tony Pernas for his invaluable help with field soil collection.

Supplementary material

10452_2019_9692_MOESM1_ESM.docx (181 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 181 kb)

References

  1. Atkinson MJ, Bingman C (1997) Elemental composition of commercial seasalts. Aquaric Aquat Sci 8:39–43Google Scholar
  2. Bellinger BJ, Davis SL (2017) Investigating the role of water and sediment chemistry from two reservoirs in regulating the growth potential of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray. Aquat Bot 136:175–185.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AQUABOT.2016.10.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berges JA, Franklin DJ, Harrison PJ (2001) Evolution of an artificial seawater medium: improvements in enriched seawater, artificial water over the last two decades. J Phycol 37:1138–1145.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1529-8817.2001.01052.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boustany RG, Michot TC, Moss RF (2010) Effects of salinity and light on biomass and growth of Vallisneria americana from Lower St. Johns River, FL, USA. Wetl Ecol Manag 18:203–217.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-009-9160-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chambers LG, Davis SE, Troxler TG, Entry JA (2013) Sea level rise in the Everglades. In: Entry JA, Gottlieb AD, Jayachandrahan K, Ogram A (eds) Microbiology of the Everglades ecosystem. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 89–114Google Scholar
  6. Chen ZC, Yamaji N, Horie T, Che J, Li J, An G, Ma JF (2017) A magnesium transporter OsMGT1 plays a critical role in salt tolerance in rice. Plant Physiol 174:1837–1849.  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.17.00532 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng TS, Hung MJ, Cheng YI, Cheng LJ (2013) Calcium-induced proline accumulation contributes to amelioration of NaCl injury and expression of glutamine synthetase in greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.). Aquat Toxicol 144–145:265–274.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AQUATOX.2013.10.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cook RD (1977) Detection of influential observation in linear regression. Technometrics 19:15–18.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00401706.1977.10489493 Google Scholar
  9. Deinlein U, Stephan AB, Horie T, Luo W, Xu G, Schroeder JI (2014) Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms. Trends Plant Sci 19:371–379.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TPLANTS.2014.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gettys LA, Haller WT (2013) Effect of ecotype, sediment composition, and fertility level on productivity of eight Florida ecotypes of American eelgrass (Vallisneria americana). J Aquat Plant Manag 51:127–131Google Scholar
  11. Gettys LA, Haller WT, Bellaud M (2014) Biology and control of aquatic plants. A best management practices handbook. Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Foundation, MariettaGoogle Scholar
  12. Gomes MADC, Suzuki MS, Cunha MD, Tullii CF (2011) Effect of salt stress on nutrient concentration, photosynthetic pigments, proline and foliar morphology of Salvinia auriculata Aubl. Acta Limnol Bras 23:164–176.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S2179-975X2011000200007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grattan SR, Grieve CM (1998) Salinity–mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops. Sci Hortic (Amsterdam) 78:127–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(98)00192-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Haller WT, Sutton DL, Barlowe WC (1974) Effects of salinity on growth of several aquatic macrophytes. Ecology 55:891–894.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1934427 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hayat S, Hayat Q, Alyemeni MN, Wani AS, Pitchel J, Ahmad A (2012) Role of proline under changing environments. Plant Signal Behav 7:1456–1466.  https://doi.org/10.4161/psb.21949 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Herbert ER, Boon P, Burgin AJ, Neubauer SC, Franklin RB, Ardón M, Hopfensperger KN, Lamers LP, Gell P (2015) A global perspective on wetland salinization: ecological consequences of a growing threat to freshwater wetlands. Ecosphere 6:206.  https://doi.org/10.1890/es14-00534.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Iqbal N, Umar S, Khan NA, Khan MIR (2014) A new perspective of phytohormones in salinity tolerance: regulation of proline metabolism. Environ Exp Bot 100:34–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENVEXPBOT.2013.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jampeetong A, Brix H (2009) Effects of NaCl salinity on growth, morphology, photosynthesis and proline accumulation of Salvinia natans. Aquat Bot 91:181–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AQUABOT.2009.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kester DR, Duedall IW, Conners DN, Pytkowicz RM (1967) Preparation of artificial seawater. Limnol Oceanogr 12:176–179.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1967.12.1.0176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khan NA, Khan MI, Asgher M, Fatma M, Masood A, Syeed S (2014) Salinity tolerance in plants: revisiting the role of sulfur metabolites. J Plant Biochem Physiol 2:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lotze HK (2006) Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science 312:1806–1809.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1128035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mickelbart MV, Marler TE (1998) Growth, gas exchange, and mineral relations of black sapote (Diospyros digyna Jacq.) as influenced by salinity. Sci Hortic (Amsterdam) 72:103–110.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(97)00095-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moon DC, Stiling P (2002) The effects of salinity and nutrients on a tritrophic salt-marsh system. Ecology 83:2465–2476.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083%5b2465:TEOSAN%5d2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mulholland MM, Otte ML (2002) The effects of nitrogen supply and salinity on DMSP, glycine betaine and proline concentrations in leaves of Spartina anglica. Aquat Bot 72:193–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3770(01)00228-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Orth RJ, Carruthers TJB, Dennison WC, Duarte CM, Fourqurean JW, Heck KL, Hughes AR, Kendrick GA, Kenworthy WJ, Olyarnik S, Short FT (2006) A global crisis for seagrass ecosystems. Bioscience 56:987–996.  https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56%5b987:agcfse%5d2.0.co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Per TS, Khan NA, Reddy PS, Masood A, Hasanuzzaman M, Khan MIR, Anjum NA (2017) Approaches in modulating proline metabolism in plants for salt and drought stress tolerance: phytohormones, mineral nutrients and transgenics. Plant Physiol Biochem 115:126–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PLAPHY.2017.03.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rout NP, Shaw BP (2001) Salt tolerance in aquatic macrophytes: possible involvement of the antioxidative enzymes. Plant Sci 160:415–423.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(00)00406-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rubio V, Bustos R, Irigoyen ML, Cardona-López X, Rojas-Triana M, Paz-Ares J (2009) Plant hormones and nutrient signaling. Plant Mol Biol 69:361–373.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11103-008-9380-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Salter J, Morris K, Boon PI (2008) Does salinity reduce the tolerance of two contrasting wetland plants, the submerged monocot Vallisneria australis and the woody shrub Melaleuca ericifolia, to wetting and drying? Mar Freshw Res 59:291.  https://doi.org/10.1071/MF07147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shields EC, Moore KA (2016) Effects of sediment and salinity on the growth and competitive abilities of three submersed macrophytes. Aquat Bot 132:24–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2016.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Short FT, Neckles HA (1999) The effects of global climate change on seagrasses. Aquat Bot 63:169–196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3770(98)00117-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Short FT, Kosten S, Morgan PA, Malone S, Moore GE (2016) Impacts of climate change on submerged and emergent wetland plants. Aquat Bot 135:3–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2016.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Silveira MJ, Thomaz SM (2015) Growth of a native versus an invasive submerged aquatic macrophyte differs in relation to mud and organic matter concentrations in sediment. Aquat Bot 124:85–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AQUABOT.2015.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sim LL, Chambers JM, Davis JA (2006) Ecological regime shifts in salinised wetland systems. I. Salinity thresholds for the loss of submerged macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 573:89–107.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-006-0267-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Srivastava AK, Rai AN, Patade VY, Suprasanna P (2013) Calcium signaling and its significance in alleviating salt stress in plants. In: Ahmad P, Azooz MM, Prasad MNV (eds) salt stress in plants. Springer, New York, pp 197–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Strazisar T, Koch MS, Madden CJ (2015) Seagrass (Ruppia maritima L.) life history transitions in response to salinity dynamics along the Everglades-Florida Bay ecotone. Estuaries Coasts 38:337–352.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-014-9807-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tavakkoli E, Rengasamy P, McDonald GK (2010) High concentrations of Na+ and Cl ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress. J Exp Bot 61:4449–4459.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Twilley RR, Barko JW (1990) The growth of submersed macrophytes under experimental salinity and light conditions. Estuaries 13:311–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang M, Zheng Q, Shen Q, Guo S (2013) The critical role of potassium in plant stress response. Int J Mol Sci 14:7370–7390.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14047370 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wolters M, Garbutt A, Bekker RM, Bakker JP, Carey PD (2007) Restoration of salt-marsh vegetation in relation to site suitability, species pool and dispersal traits. J Appl Ecol 45:904–912.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01453.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xie D, Yu D, You WH, Wang LG (2013) Morphological and physiological responses to sediment nutrients in the submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum. Wetlands 33:1095–1102.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-013-0465-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fort Lauderdale Research and Education CenterUniversity of Florida, IFASDavieUSA

Personalised recommendations