Regional-scale patterns of habitat preference for the seahorse Hippocampus reidi in the tropical estuarine environment
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When dealing with species where local information on distribution and habitat preferences is insufficient or lacking (data poor), it is challenging for managers to determine effective measures for conservation. The purpose of this paper was to identify trends in habitat preference for a data-deficient seahorse species, Hippocampus reidi in northeastern Brazil. This is also the first study to use mixed-effect models to compare multiple datasets at a regional level for any seahorse species. Generalized linear mixed-effects models determined that shallow depths, warm temperatures and the number of holdfasts were the most important habitat variables in predicting seahorse presence in tropical estuaries. A log-likelihood ratio *G test found no difference between the proportion of adults and juveniles using various holdfasts, although adults used a greater diversity of holdfasts. The lack of difference in adult and juvenile habitat suggests either that H. reidi may not experience ontogenetic shifts in habitat or that habitat is not determining the distribution patterns of adults and juveniles within estuaries. Alternatively, habitat preference may be coupled with other factors to drive seahorse distribution within estuaries. Due to estuary importance in providing holdfast diversity and other conditions to seahorse use, conservation and management for H. reidi should also consider appropriate protection of estuarine areas, thus safeguarding habitat for both juveniles and adults.
KeywordsSyngnathids Brazil Mangrove Ecology Mixed effects Data-poor
The authors would like to thank the Universidade Federal da Paraiba and the Universidade Federal do Ceará, for training and support with fieldwork. This research was funded by the William J. Fulbright Scholarship Foundation, the PADI Foundation and the Fundação Grupo Boticário de Proteção à Natureza. We thank P. Malloy for his statistical insights and the research assistants from Ceará, Mangue Vivo and the Colonia de Pescadores No. 17 Itarema. Special thanks are due to Glaura Barros and E. Romao for their logistical support throughout the duration of fieldwork. Research permits were provided by Seretaria Estadual do Meio Ambiente do Ceará (SEMACE) and SISBIO.
This research was funded by the William J. Fulbright Scholarship Foundation and the Fundação Grupo Boticário de Proteção à Natureza.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This research followed animal ethical protocols as required by the Federal University of Paraiba, Brazil.
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