Aquatic Ecology

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 99–104 | Cite as

Prussian carp Carassius gibelio: a silent invader arriving to the Iberian Peninsula

  • Filipe Ribeiro
  • Kateřina Rylková
  • Raquel Moreno-Valcárcel
  • Carlos Carrapato
  • Lukáš Kalous


In the last decades, the invasive Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio, has been detected in most of the European countries. The Prussian carp has been undetected in many European countries since it is morphologically indistinct from the long-established goldfish Carassius auratus. In this study, genetic markers were used to identify the Prussian carp in several locations of the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain). The presence of polyploid C. gibelio is confirmed for the first time in Iberian Peninsula, in four large river systems (Guadalquivir, Guadiana, Tagus and Douro). The introduction of C. gibelio to these Iberian drainages is discussed in light of the potential vector to the Iberian Peninsula.


Silent invader Cytochrome b Prussian carp Carassius auratus complex Spain Portugal 



The Portuguese Science Foundation supported F. Ribeiro (SFRH/BPD/46761/2008). The authors appreciate the help of A. Veríssimo during fish sampling. We are also thankful to O. Weyl who greatly impoved an early version of this manuscipt. Work was supported by the Grant Agency of Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CIGA) Project No. 20132016.


  1. Almeida D, Ribeiro F, Leunda PM, Vilizzi L, Copp GH (2013) Effectiveness of FISK, an invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes, to perform risk identification assessments in the Iberian Peninsula. Risk Anal 33:1404–1413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Caffrey JM, Baars JR, Barbour JH, Boets P, Boon P, Davenport K, Dick JTA, Early J, Edsman L, Gallagher C, Gross J, Heinimaa P, Horrill C, Hudin S, Hulme PH, Hynes S, MacIsaac HJ, McLoone P, Millane M, Moen TL, Moore N, Newman J, O’Conchuir R, O’Farrell M, O’Flynn C, Oidtmann B, Renals T, Ricciardi A, Roy H, Shaw R, van Valkenburg JLCH, Wey O, Williams F, Lucy FE (2014) Tackling invasive alien species in Europe: the top 20 issues. Manag Biol Invasions 5:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Copp GH, Bianco PG, Bogutskaya NG, Eros T, Falka I, Ferreira MT, Fox MG, Freyhof J, Gozlan RE, Grabowska J, Kováč V, Moreno-Amich R, Naseka AM, Peňáz M, Povź M, Przybylski M, Robillard M, Russell IC, Stakenas S, Šumer S, Vila-Gispert A, Wiesner C (2005) To be, or not to be, a non-native freshwater fish? J Appl Ichthyol 21:242–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Daněk T, Kalous L, Veselý T, Krásová E, Reschová S, Rylková K, Kulich P, Petrtýl M, Pokorová D, Knytl M (2012) Massive mortality of Prussian carp Carassius gibelio in the upper Elbe basin associated with herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (CyHV-2). Dis Aquat Org 102:87–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Elgin EL, Tunna HR, Jackson LJ (2014) First confirmed records of Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) in open waters of North America. Bioinvasions Rec 3(4):275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Elvira B, Almodóvar A (2001) Freshwater fish introductions in Spain: facts and figures at the beginning of the 21st century. J Fish Biol 59:323–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. García-Berthou E, Alcaraz C, Pou-Rovira Q, Zamora L, Coenders G, Feo C (2005) Introduction pathways and establishment rates of invasive aquatic species in Europe. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:453–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hall TA (1999) Bioedit: a user friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
  9. Hänfling B, Bolton P, Harlea M, Carvalho GR (2005) A molecular approach to detect hybridisation between crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and non-indigenous carp species (Carassius spp. and Cyprinus carpio). Freshw Biol 50:403–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hensel K (1971) Some notes on systematic status of Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782) with further record of this fish from the Danube river in Czechoslovakia. Věstník Československé Společnosti Zoologické XXXV(3):186–198Google Scholar
  11. Hermoso V, Clavero M (2011) Threatening processes and conservation management of endemic freshwater fish in the Mediterranean Basin: a review. Mar Freshw Res 62:244–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kalous L, Šlechtová V, Bohlen J, Petrtýl M, Švátora M (2007) First European record of Carassius langsdorfii from Elbe basin. J Fish Biol 72:132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kalous L, Bohlen J, Rylková K, Petrtýl M (2012) Hidden diversity within the Prussian carp and designation of the neotype for Carassius gibelio (Teleostei: cyprinidae). Ichthyol Explor Freshw 23:11–18Google Scholar
  14. Kalous L, Musil J, Petrtýl M, Vajglová T, Romočuský Š, Bušta L (2013) The danger in the anglers’ bucket: qualitative and quantitative insight into bait fish market in Prague (Czech Republic). Acta Soc Zool Bohem 77:27–35Google Scholar
  15. Kottelat M, Freyhof J (2007) Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Kottelat, CornolGoogle Scholar
  16. Leprieur F, Beauchard O, Blanchet S, Oberdorff T, Brosse S (2008) Fish invasions in the world’s river systems: when natural processes are blurred by human activities. PLoS Biol 6:e28CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lusková V, Lusk S, Halačka K, Vetešník L (2010) Carassius auratus gibelio—the most successful invasive fish in waters of the Czech Republic. Russ J Biol Invasions 1:176–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Papoušek I, Vetešník L, Halačka K, Lusková V, Humpl M, Mendel J (2008) Identification of natural hybrids of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) and crucian carp Carassius carassius (L.) from lower Dyje River floodplain (Czech Republic). J Fish Biol 72:1230–1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ribeiro F, Veríssimo AC (2014) Full westward expansion of Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Iberian Peninsula. J Appl Ichthyol 30:540–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ribeiro F, Collares-Pereira MJ, Moyle PB (2009) Non-native fish in the fresh waters of Portugal, Azores and Madeira Islands: a growing threat to aquatic biodiversity. Fish Manag Ecol 16:255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rylková K, Kalous L, Šlechtová V, Bohlen J (2010) Many branches, one root: first evidence for a monophyly of the morphologically highly diverse goldfish (Carassius auratus). Aquaculture 302:36–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rylková K, Kalous L, Bohlen J, Lamatsch DK, Petrtýl M (2013) Phylogeny and biogeographic history of the cyprinid fish genus Carassius (Teleostei: cyprinidae) with focus on natural and anthropogenic arrivals in Europe. Aquaculture 380:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Šlechtová V, Bohlen J, Freyhof J, Persat H, Delmastro GB (2004) The Alps as barrier to dispersal in cold-adapted freshwater fishes? Phylogeographic history and taxonomic status of the bullhead in the Adriatic freshwater drainage. Mol Phylogenet Evol 33:225–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Swofford DL (2000) PAUP. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (and other methods). Version 4. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  25. Tarkan AS, Gaygusuz Ö, Gürsoy Gaygusuz Ç, Saç G, Copp GH (2012) Circumstantial evidence of gibel carp, Carassius gibelio, reproductive competition exerted on native fish species in a mesotrophic reservoir. Fish Manag Ecol 19:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vetemaa M, Eschbaum R, Albert A, Saat T (2005) Distribution, sex ratio and growth of Carassius gibelio (Bloch) in coastal and inland waters of Estonia (north-eastern Baltic Sea). J Appl Ichthyol 21:287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Villesen P (2007) FaBox: an online fast sequence toolbox.
  28. Wouters J, Janson S, Lusková V, Olsén GH (2012) Molecular identification of hybrids of the invasive gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio and crucian carp Carassius carassius in Swedish waters. J Fish Biol 80:2595–2604CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Filipe Ribeiro
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kateřina Rylková
    • 3
  • Raquel Moreno-Valcárcel
    • 4
  • Carlos Carrapato
    • 5
  • Lukáš Kalous
    • 3
  1. 1.Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculdade de CiênciasUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Museu Nacional de História Natural e da CiênciaUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural ResourcesCzech University of Life Sciences PraguePrague 6, SuchdolCzech Republic
  4. 4.Department of Zoology, Charles Darwin Building, 3rd Floor, Universitary Campus of RabanalesUniversity of CórdobaCórdobaSpain
  5. 5.Parque Natural do Vale do GuadianaInstituto da Conservação da Natureza e das FlorestasMértolaPortugal

Personalised recommendations