Advertisement

Aquatic Ecology

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 301–308 | Cite as

Stomach content analysis of juvenile, scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini captured off the coast of Mazatlán, Mexico

  • Yassir Edén Torres-RojasEmail author
  • Agustín Hernández-Herrera
  • Felipe Galván-Magaña
  • Vanessa Guadalupe Alatorre-Ramírez
Article

Abstract

We quantified the diet of juvenile, scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini in the area off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico, to understand their feeding ecology this shark. The prey species of Sphyrna lewini were identified and quantified from stomach content analysis. In addition, we determined the variations between genders. During two fishing seasons (2000–2001 and 2001–2002), we analyzed 232 stomachs, of which 85% contained food. The trophic spectrum was composed of three species of cephalopods, six of crustaceans and 19 species of fish from mainly pelagic and benthic habitats. According to the Index of Relative Importance (%IRI), the cephalopod Loliolopsis diomedeae with IRI = 18%, fish of the family Carangidae IRI = 25% and family Synodontidae IRI = 19% constituted the main prey in general. The trophic niche width was <0.4, which indicated that S. lewini juveniles in this area feed on a wide range of prey items, though they showed a preference for a few prey items.

Keywords

Feeding habits Specialist Elasmobranchs Gulf of California Mexico 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank CONACyT, PIFI—IPN, COFAA, and EDI—IPN for the financial support and the Fish Ecology Laboratory at CICIMAR-IPN for its assistance in the identification and analysis of samples. Thanks to Dr. Ellis Glazier for editing this English-language text.

References

  1. Aguilar-Castro NA (2003) Ecología trófica de juveniles del tiburón martillo Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834) en el Golfo de California. Master thesis, CICIMAR-IPN. La Paz, B.C.S., Mexico pp. 90Google Scholar
  2. Allen GR, Robertson DR (1994) Fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 332 pGoogle Scholar
  3. Arizmendi-Rodríguez DI, Abitia-Cárdenas LA, Galván-Magaña F, Trejo-Escamilla I (2006) Food Habits of sailfish Istiophorus platypterus off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, México. Bull Mar Sci 79(3):777–791Google Scholar
  4. Brusca RC (1980) Common intertidal invertebrates of the Gulf of California, 2nd edn. The University of Arizona Press, 513 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Bush A (2003) Diet and diel feeding periodicity of juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna lewini, in Kāne’ohe Bay, Ō’ahu, Hawai’i. Environ Biol Fishes 67:1–11. doi: 10.1023/A:1024438706814 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bush A, Holland K (2002) Food limitation in a nursery area: estimates of daily ration in juvenile scalloped hammerheads, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834) in Kāne’ohe Bay. Ō’ahu. Hawaii. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 278:157–178. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0981(02)00332-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cailliet GM, Love MS, Ebeling AW (1986) Fishes, a field and laboratory manual on their structure, identification, and natural history. Waveland Press Inc., Prospect Heights, 186 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Clarke TA (1971) The ecology of the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini, in Hawaii. Pac Sci 25(2):133–144Google Scholar
  9. Clarke (1986) A handbook for the identification of cephalopod beaks. Clarendon Press, Oxford, p 273Google Scholar
  10. Clarke KR, Warwick RM (2001) Changes in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation, 2nd edn. PRIMER-EGoogle Scholar
  11. Clothier CR (1950) A key to some southern California fishes based on vertebral characters. Fish Bull 79:1–83Google Scholar
  12. Compagno LJV (1984) FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. II. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, RomeGoogle Scholar
  13. Cortés E (1997) A critical review of methods of studying fish feeding based on analysis of stomach contents: application to elasmobranch fishes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 54:726–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duncan KM, Holland KN (2006) Habitat use, growth rates and dispersal patterns of juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in a nursery habitat. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 312:211–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. FAO (1999) International plan of action for the conservation and management of sharks. FAO, Roma, 31 pGoogle Scholar
  16. Fischer W, Krupp F, Schneider W, Sommer C, Carpenter KE, Niem VH (1995) Guía FAO para la identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca Pacífico Centro-oriental. Vols. II y III. Vertebrados parte 1 y 2Google Scholar
  17. Fitch JE, Brownell RL Jr (1968) Fish otoliths in cetacean stomachs and their importance in interpreting feeding habits. J Fish Res Board Can 25:2561–2574Google Scholar
  18. Galván-Magaña F (1999) Relaciones tróficas ínterespecificas de la comunidad de depredadores epipelágicos del Océano Pacífico Oriental. Doctoral dissertation, CICESE Ensenada, BCGoogle Scholar
  19. Jiménez-Valderde A, Hortal J (2003) Las curvas de acumulación de especies y la necesidad de evaluar la calidad de los inventarios biológicos. Rev Iberica Aracnologia 8:151–161Google Scholar
  20. Kessler WS (2006) The circulation of the eastern tropical Pacific: a review. Prog Oceanogr 69(2–4):181–217. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2006.03.009 Google Scholar
  21. Klimley AP (1983) Social organization of schools of the scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith y Smith), in the Gulf of California. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  22. Klimley AP, Butler SB, Nelson DR, Stull T (1988) Diel movements of scalloped hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna lewini Griffith y Smith to and from a seamount in the Gulf of California. J Fish Biol 33:751–761. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1988.tb05520.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Krebs CJ (1999) Ecological methodology. Addison Wesley, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  24. Labropoulou M, Eleftheriou A (1997) The foraging ecology of two pairs of congeneric demersal fish species: importance of morphological characteristics in prey selection. J Fish Biol 50:324–340. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1997.tb01361.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Manjarrez Acosta C, Juárez Rentería F, Rodríguez Espinoza JP, Díaz Duran R, Lizárraga Humaran X, Vega Cerecer AE (1983) Estudio sobre algunos aspectos biológico-pesqueros del tiburón en la zona sur de Sinaloa. Memoria de Servicio Social Universitario, Escuela de Ciencias del Mar, thesis Universidad Autónoma de SinaloaGoogle Scholar
  26. Pinkas L, Oliphant MS, Iverson LK (1971) Food habits of albacore, bluefin tuna and bonito in California waters. Fish Bull 152:105Google Scholar
  27. Pittenger GG (1984) Movements, distributions, feeding, and growth of the pacific angel sharks, Squatina californica off Santa Barbara, California. Copeia 1986:987–994Google Scholar
  28. Recksiek CW, Frey HW (1978) Background of market squid research program, basic life history, and the California fishery. Zn Biological, oceanographic, and acoustic aspects of the market squid, Loligo opalescens Berry, Recksiek CW, Frey HW (eds) Calif Dep Fish Game, Fish Bull 169, 185 ppGoogle Scholar
  29. Saucedo Barrón CJ, Colado Uribe G, Martínez Adrián JG, Burgos Zazueta S, Chacón Cortez JG, Espinoza Fierro J (1982) Contribución al estudio de la pesquería del tiburón en la zona sur de Sinaloa. Memoria de Servicio Social Universitario, Escuela de Ciencias del Mar, thesis Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, MazatlanGoogle Scholar
  30. Soberón J, Llorente J (1993) The use of species accumulation functions for the prediction of species richness. Conserv Biol 7:480–488. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1993.07030480.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Spitz J, Rousseau Y, Ridoux V (2006) Diet overlap between harbour porpoise and bottlenose dolphin: an argument in favour of interference competition for food? Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 70:259–270. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2006.04.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Springer S (1960) Natural history of the sandbar shark, Eulamia milberti. Fish Bull (Wash D C) 61:1–38Google Scholar
  33. Statsoft (2001) STATISTICA (data analysis software system and computer program manual). Versión 6. StatSoft, Inc, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  34. Stillwell CE, Kohler NE (1982) Food, feeding habits, and estimates of daily ration of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the northern Atlantic. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 39:407–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thomson DA, Findley LT, Kerstitch AN (2000) Reef fishes of sea of Cortez. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, 353 pGoogle Scholar
  36. Tripp-Valdez A (2005) Ecología trófica del dorado Coryphaena hippurus (Linnaeus, 1758) en dos áreas del sur del Golfo de California. Master thesis CICIMAR-IPN, La Paz. 125 ppGoogle Scholar
  37. Wetherbee BM, Cortes E (2004) Food consumption and feeding habits. In: Musick JA, Carrier JC, Heithaus M (eds) Biology of sharks and their relatives. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 223–244Google Scholar
  38. Wolff CA (1984) Identification and estimation of size from the beaks of eighteen species of cephalopods from the Pacific Ocean. US Dep Commer, NOAA Tech Rep NMFS-17, 50 pGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yassir Edén Torres-Rojas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Agustín Hernández-Herrera
    • 1
  • Felipe Galván-Magaña
    • 1
  • Vanessa Guadalupe Alatorre-Ramírez
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas (CICIMAR-IPN)La PazMéxico

Personalised recommendations