Advertisement

Adsorption

, Volume 25, Issue 8, pp 1663–1672 | Cite as

Activated carbon–carbon dioxide based two stage adsorption compression Brayton cycle power generation

  • Kandadai SrinivasanEmail author
  • Pradip Dutta
Article

Abstract

Enhancement of energy delivery of a carbon dioxide (CO2) Brayton cycle without compression work liability is achievable using low grade heat for thermal compression. The limitation of the expansion ratios of a single stage adsorption thermal compression is obviated by opting for pressure build up in two stages. Despite the use of a large number of adsorbers, it is shown that, specific work output can be augmented substantially with no undue penalty on the overall cycle efficiency albeit with a marginal shortfall in work output per unit mass of adsorbent. These features are elucidated through an activated carbon based thermal compression of CO2 yet limiting high side pressures to 80 bar and the principal heat source at a temperature equal to or less than 300 °C in tandem with another low grade source at 100 °C for thermal compression. The net outcome is a substantial reduction in the size of the power block and heat exchangers resulting from enhancement of the expansion ratio and reduction in the mass flow rate in the circuit.

Keywords

Brayton cycle Thermal compression Adsorption Carbon dioxide 

Abbreviations

C

Uptake (kg of CO2/kg of activated carbon)

E

Physical exergy (kJ)

H

Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

Δhst

Isosteric heat of adsorption (kJ/kg of CO2 adsorbed)

m

Mass (kg)

Mass flow rate (kg/s)

P

Power (kW)

p

Pressure bar

Q

Heat (kJ)

s

Entropy (kJ/kg K)

T

Temperature (°C or K)

w

Specific work (kJ/kg of CO2)

wch

Specific work (kJ/kg of adsorbent)

η

Efficiency

ρ

Density (kg/m3)

τ

Time (s)

Subscripts

1–6

States on Brayton cycle

A–d, A–D, a′, c′, A′, C′

States on thermal compression cycle

ch

Activated carbon

eff

Effective

ex

Exergetic

H

Upper stage

H1

Lower grade

H2

Higher grade

I

Inter-stage

L

Lower stage

s

Isentropic

u

Uptake

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper is based on work supported in part under the US-India Partnership to Advance Clean Energy-Research (PACE-R) for the Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the United States (SERIIUS), funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy under Subcontract DE-AC36-08GO28308 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Government of India, through the Department of Science and Technology under Subcontract IUSSTF/JCERDC-SERIIUS/2012.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Akkimaradi, B.S., Prasad, M., Dutta, P., Srinivasan, K.: Effect of packing density and adsorption parameters on throughput of an adsorption compressor. Carbon 40, 2855–2859 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banker, N.D., Srinivasan, K., Prasad, M.: Performance analysis of activated carbon + HFC 134a adsorption coolers. Carbon 42, 113–123 (2004a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banker ND, Prasad M, Srinivasan K (2004b) Comparative analysis of single and two stage activated carbon +HFC134a refrigeration systems. In: Carbon 2004, American Carbon Society, Rhode Island. (2004b) http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.581.8792&rep=rep1&type=pdf Accessed 11 May 2019
  4. Banker, N.D., Prasad, M., Dutta, P., Srinivasan, K.: Activated carbon + HFC134a based two stage thermal compression adsorption refrigeration using low grade thermal energy sources. Appl. Therm. Eng. 29, 2257–2264 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banker, N.D., Prasad, M., Dutta, P., Srinivasan, K.: Development and transient performance results of a single stage activated carbon—HFC134a closed cycle adsorption cooling system. Appl. Therm. Eng. 30, 1126–1132 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chacartegui, R., Muñoz de Escalona, J.M., Sánchez, D., Monje, B., Sánchez, T.: Alternative cycles based on carbon dioxide for central receiver solar power plants. Appl. Therm. Eng. 31, 872–879 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Desideri, U.: Fundamentals of gas turbine cycles: thermodynamics, efficiency and specific power. In: Jansohn, P. (ed.) Modern gas turbine systems, pp. 44–85. Woodhead Publishing, Oxford (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dutta, P., Kumar, P., Ng, K.C., Murthy, S.S., Srinivasan, K.: Organic Brayton cycles with solid sorption thermal compression for low grade heat utilization. Appl. Therm. Eng. 62, 171–175 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garg, P., Kumar, P., Srinivasan, K.: Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for concentrated solar power. J. Supercrit. Fluids 76, 54–60 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Garg, P., Kumar, P., Srinivasan, K.: A trade-off between maxima in efficiency and specific work output of super- and trans-critical CO2 Brayton cycles. J. Supercrit. Fluids 98, 119–126 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Habib, K., Saha, B.B., Chakraborty, A., Koyama, S., Srinivasan, K.: Performance evaluation of combined adsorption refrigeration cycles. Int. J. Refrig. 34, 129–137 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kumar, P., Srinivasan, K.: Carbon dioxide based power generation in renewable energy systems. Appl. Therm. Eng. 109B, 831–840 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kumar, P., Dutta, P., Murthy, S., Srinivasan, K.: Solar driven carbon dioxide Brayton cycle power generation with thermal compression. Appl. Therm. Eng. 109B, 854–860 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lemmon, E.W., Huber, M.L., McLinden, M. O.: NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties-REFPROP, Version 9.1 National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg (2013)Google Scholar
  15. Mitra, S., Kumar, P., Srinivasan, K.: Performance evaluation of a two-stage silica gel + water adsorption based cooling-cum-desalination system. Int. J. Refrigeration 58, 186–198 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Muñoz-Antón, J., Rubbia, C., Rovira, A.M., Martínez-Val, J.: Performance study of solar power plants with CO2 as working fluid. A promising design window. Energy Convers. Manag. 92, 36–46 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Prakash, M.J., Prasad, M., Srinivasan, K.: Modeling of thermal conductivity of charcoal-nitrogen adsorption beds. Carbon 38, 907–913 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Prasad, M., Rao, R.R., Prakash, M.J., Srinivasan, K.: Thermodynamic analysis of a two stage charcoal-nitrogen adsorption cryocooler. In: Olivier, J.P., Meunier, F. (eds.) Fundamentals of Adsorption, vol. 6, pp. 745–750. Elsevier, Paris (1998)Google Scholar
  19. Saha, B.B., Akisawa, A., Kashiwagi, T.: Solar/waste heat driven two-stage adsorption chiller: the prototype. Renew. Energy 23, 93–101 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Saha, B.B., Koyama, S., El-Sharkawy, I.I., Habib, K., Srinivasan, K., Dutta, P.: Evaluation of adsorption parameters and heat of through desorption measurements. J. Chem. Eng. Data 52, 2419–2424 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Saha, B.B., El-Sharkawy, I.I., Habib, K., Koyama, S., Srinivasan, K.: Adsorption characteristics of equal mass fraction near azeotropic mixture of pentafluoroethane and 1,1,1-trifluoroethane on activated carbon. J. Chem. Eng. Data 53, 1872–1876 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Saha, B.B., Jribi, S., Koyama, S., El-Sharkawy, I.I.: Carbon dioxide adsorption isotherms on activated carbons. J. Chem. Eng. Data 56, 1974–1981 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Singh, V.K., Kumar, E.A.: Measurement and analysis of adsorption isotherms of CO2 on activated carbon. Appl. Thermal Eng. 97, 77–86 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Srinivasan, K., Banker, N.D., Prasad, M., Akkimaradi, B.S.: Evaluation of sorption compressor performance from isotherm data: application to activated carbon + nitrogen/HFC 134a systems. In: Saha, B.B., Akisawa, A., Koyama, S. (eds.) Proceedings of International Seminar on Thermally Powered Sorption Technology, pp. 121–133. Kyushu University, Fukuoka (2003)Google Scholar
  25. Srinivasan, K., Prasad, M., Dutta, P.: Activated carbon based adsorption thermal compression systems for cryocooling, refrigeration and gas storage. In: Ng, K.C., Saha, B.B. (eds.) Advances in Adsorption Technology, pp. 281–329. Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York (2010)Google Scholar
  26. Srinivasan, K., Dutta, P., Ng, K.C., Saha, B.B.: Heat of adsorption for some adsorbents on activated carbons from isotherm and direct measurements. Adsorpt. Sci. Technol. 30, 549–565 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Srinivasan, K., Dutta, P., Saha, B.B., Ng, K.C., Prasad, M.: Realistic minimum desorption temperatures for activated carbon + HFC 134a adsorption coolers. Appl. Therm. Eng. 51, 551–559 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Turchi, C.S., Ma, Z., Neises, T.W., Wagner, M.J.: Thermodynamic study of advanced supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles for concentrating solar power systems. J. Sol. Energy Eng. 135(041007), 1–7 (2013)Google Scholar
  29. Wright, S.A., Radel, R.F., Vernon, M.E., Rochau, G., Pickard, P.S.: Operation and analysis of a supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle. Report No. SAND2010-0171, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (2010). https://prod-ng.sandia.gov/techlib-noauth/access-control.cgi/2010/100171.pdf. Accessed 11 May 2019

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Centre for Energy ResearchIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia
  2. 2.School of Mechanical and Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations