, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 11–20 | Cite as

Effect of temperature, particle size and percentage deacetylation on the adsorption of acid dyes on chitosan

  • Y. C. Wong
  • Y. S. Szeto
  • W. H. Cheung
  • G. McKayEmail author


The adsorption of five acidic dyes on chitosan—a by-product from waste crustacean shell—has been studied. The equilibrium data have been studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson equations. The best correlations are obtained using the Langmuir isotherm suggesting the mechanism involves one process step of dyes complexing with the free amino group. The effect of chitosan particle size was investigated and showed an increase in adsorption capacity with decreasing particle size indicating that the available external surface was an important factor. Increasing solution temperature resulted in an increase in adsorption capacity indicating an exothermic process with a negative ΔH. Finally, the effect of varying the percentage degree of deacetylation showed that from 52% to 97% resulted in decrease in the dye adsorption capacity suggesting that more amorphisation may cause changes in the internal structure of chitosan and reduce the capacity.


Acid dyes Chitosan Equilibrium Temperature Particle size Deacetylation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Annadurai, G., Krishnan, M.R.V.: Batch equilibrium adsorption of reactive dye onto natural biopolymer. Iran. Polym. J. 6, 169–175 (1997) Google Scholar
  2. Annadurai, G., Chellapandian, M., Krishnan, M.R.V.: Adsorption of basic dye from aqueous solution by chitosan. Ind. J. Environ. Prot. 17, 95–98 (1997) Google Scholar
  3. Burkhanova, N.D., Yugai, S.M., Pulatove, Kh.P., Nikononvich, G.V., Milusheva, R.Yu., Voropaeva, N.L., Rashidova, S.Sh.: Structural investigations of chitin and its deacetylation products. Chem. Nat. Compd. 36, 352–355 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carlough, M., Hudson, S., Smith, B.: Diffusion coefficients of direct dyes in chitosan. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 42, 3055–3038 (1991) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chu, W., Tsui, S.M.: Photo-sensitization of diazo disperse dye in aqueous acetone. Chemosphere 39, 1667–1677 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coughlin, R.W., Deshaies, M.R., Davis, E.M.: Chitosan in crab shell wastes purifies electroplating wastewater. Environ. Prog. 9, 35–39 (1990) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Freundlich, H.M.F.: Over the adsorption in solution. Z. Phys. Chem. 57, 385–470 (1906) Google Scholar
  8. Ganesh, R., Boardman, G.D., Michelsen, D.: Fate of azo dyes in sludges. Water Res. 28, 1367–1376 (1994) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kim, C.Y., Choi, H.M., Cho, H.T.: Effect of deacetylation on sorption of dyes and chromium on chitin. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 63, 725–736 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Knorr, D.: Dye Binding Properties of Chitin and Chitosan. J. Food Sci. 48, 36–41 (1983) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Langmuir, I.: The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 40, 1361–1368 (1918) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lin, S.H., Lin, C.M.: Treatment of textile waste effluents by ozonation and chemical coagulation. Water Res. 27, 1743–1748 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Marc, S.R.: Asian textile dye makers are a growing power in changing market. C&EN Northeast News Bureau 73, 10–12 (1996) Google Scholar
  14. McKay, G.: Use of Adsorbents for the Removal of Pollutants from Wastewaters. CRC Press, Boca Raton (1995) Google Scholar
  15. McKay, G., Blair, H.S., Gardner, J.R.: Adsorption of dyes on chitin, I: equilibrium studies. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 3043–3057 (1982) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ravi Kumar, M.N.V., Rajakala Sridhari, T., Durga Bhavani, K., Pradip Kumar, Dutta: Trends in color removal from textile mill effluents. Colourage, 25–34 (1998) Google Scholar
  17. Redlich, O., Peterson, D.L.: A useful adsorption isotherm. J. Phys. Chem. 63, 1024–1026 (1959) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Safarik, I.: Removal of organic polycyclic compounds from water solutions with a magnetic chitosan based sorbent bearing copper phthalocyanine dye. Water Res. 29, 101–105 (1995) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shimizu, Y., Kono, K., Kim, I.S., Takagishi, T.: Effects of added metal ions on the interaction of chitin and partially deacetylated chitin with an azo dye carrying hydroxyl groups. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 55, 255–261 (1995) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith, B., Koonce, T., Hudson, S.: Decolorizing Dye Wastewater Using Chitosan. Am. Dyestuff Rep. Oct., 18–36 (1993) Google Scholar
  21. Stefancich, S., Delben, F., Muzzarelli, R.A.A.: Interaction of soluble chitoans with dyes in water, I: optical evidence. Carbohydr. Polym. 24, 17–23 (1994) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Vandevivere, P.C., Bianchi, R., Verstraete, W.: Treatment and reuse of wastewater from the textile wet-processing industry: review of emerging technologies. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 72, 289–302 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Venkatrao, B., Baradarajan, A., Sastry, C.A.: Chitosan as a tool for the purification of waters. Adsorption of dyestuffs on chitosan. In: Muzzarelli, R.A.A., Jeuniaux, C., Gooday, G.W. (eds.) Proc. Int. Conf. Chitin Chitosan, pp. 554–559. Plenum, New York (1986) Google Scholar
  24. Walker, G.M., Weatherley, L.R.: Adsorption of acid dyes on to granular activated carbon in fixed beds. Water Res. 31, 2093–2101 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yoshida, H., Takemori, T.: Adsorption of direct dye on cross-linked chitosan fiber: breakthrough curve. Water Sci. Technol. 35, 29–37 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yoshida, H., Fukuda, S., Okamoto, A., Kataoka, T.: Recovery of direct dye and acid dye by adsorption on chitosan fiber—equilibria. Water Sci. Technol. 31, 1667–1676 (1991) Google Scholar
  27. Yoshida, H., Okamoto, A., Kataoka, T.: Adsorption of acid dye on cross-linked chitosan fiber: equilibria. Chem. Eng. Sci. 48, 2267–2272 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. C. Wong
    • 1
  • Y. S. Szeto
    • 1
  • W. H. Cheung
    • 2
  • G. McKay
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Textiles and ClothingHong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHung HomHong Kong
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringHong Kong University of Science & TechnologyClear Water BayHong Kong

Personalised recommendations