, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 41–51 | Cite as

Removal of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto natural bentonite

  • Ş. Kubilay
  • R. GürkanEmail author
  • A. Savran
  • T. Şahan


In this study, the removal of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions using the adsorption process onto natural bentonite has been investigated as a function of initial metal concentration, pH and temperature. In order to find out the effect of temperature on adsorption, the experiments were conducted at 20, 50, 75 and 90 °C. For all the metal cations studied, the maximum adsorption was observed at 20 °C. The batch method has been employed using initial metal concentrations in solution ranging from 15 to 70 mg L−1 at pH 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0. A flame atomic absorption spectrometer was used for measuring the heavy metal concentrations before and after adsorption. The percentage adsorption and distribution coefficients (K d) were determined for the adsorption system as a function of adsorbate concentration. In the ion exchange evaluation part of the study, it is determined that in every concentration range, adsorption ratios of bentonitic clay-heavy metal cations match to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR) adsorption isotherm data, adding to that every cation exchange capacity of metals has been calculated. It is shown that the bentonite is sensitive to pH changes, so that the amounts of heavy metal cations adsorbed increase as pH increase in adsorbent-adsorbate system. It is evident that the adsorption phenomena depend on the surface charge density of adsorbent and hydrated ion diameter depending upon the solution pH. According to the adsorption equilibrium studies, the selectivity order can be given as Zn2+>Cu2+>Co2+. These results show that bentonitic clay hold great potential to remove the relevant heavy metal cations from industrial wastewater. Also, from the results of the thermodynamic analysis, standard free energy ΔG 0, standard enthalpy ΔH 0 and standard entropy ΔS 0 of the adsorption process were calculated.


Adsorption Heavy metals Bentonite Removal Wastewater 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altındoğan, H.S., Altındoğan, S., Tümen, F., Bildik, M.: Arsenic removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption on red mud. Waste Manag. 20, 761–767 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrow, G.M.: Physical Chemistry, sixth edn., McGraw-Hill, North America (1996) p. 344 Google Scholar
  3. Barton, S.S.: Adsorption of methylene blue by active carbons. Carbon 25, 533–538 (1987) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bereket, G., Aroğuz, A.Z., Özel, M.Z.: Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption bentonite. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 187, 338–343 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blackman, A.G.: Bentonites, major market. Civ. Eng. Ind. Miner. 25, 23–25 (1969) Google Scholar
  6. Grimshaw, R.W.: The Chemistry and Physics of Clays and other Ceramic Raw Materials, fourth edn. revised, Wiley-InterScience, New York (1972) p. 1024 Google Scholar
  7. Gutierrez, M., Fuentes, H.R.: A Langmuir isotherm-based prediction of competitive sorption of Sr, Cs and Co in Ca-montmorillonite. Waste Manag. 13, 327–332 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hasany, S.M., Saeed, M.M., Ahmed, M.: Sorption and thermodynamic behavior of Zn(II)-thiocyanate complexes onto polyurethane foam from acidic solutions. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 252(3), 477–484 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Helfferich, E.: Ion Exchange. McGraw-Hill, New York (1962) p. 166 Google Scholar
  10. Heyes, K.F., Lockie, J.O.: Modeling ionic strength effect on cation adsorption at hydrous oxide/solution interfaces. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 47, 564–572 (1987) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ikram, M., Rauf, M.A., Rauf, N.: Trace level removal studies of Cr(III) from aqueous solution. J. Trace Microprobe Tech. 20(1), 119–125 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jeong, C.H., et al.: Effect of ionic strength and pH on Cs and Sr sorption of Na-bentonite. J. Korean Soc. Environ. Eng. 17, 359–367 (1995) Google Scholar
  13. Jou, A.S.R., Ayanlaja, S.S., Ogunwole, J.A.: An evaluation of the cation exchange capacity measurements of soils in the tropics. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Analysis 7, 751–761 (1976) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kara, M., Yuzer, H., Sabah, E., Celik, M.S.: Adsorption of cobalt from aqueous solutions onto sepiolite. Water Res. 37, 224–232 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Khan, S.A., Rehman, U.R., Khan, M.A.: Sorption of strontium on bentonite. Waste Manag. 15(8), 641–650 (1995a) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Khan, S.A., Rehman, U.R., Khan, M.A.: Adsorption of chromium(III), chromium(VI) and silver(I) on bentonite. Waste Manag. 15(4), 271–282 (1995b) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kozar, S., Bilinski, H., Branica, M., Schwugar, M.: Adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on bentonite under estuarine and seawater conditions. J. Sci. Total Environ. 121, 203–216 (1992) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Langmuir, I.: The Adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 40, 1361–1405 (1918) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee, J.-O., Cho, W.-J., Kang, C.-H.: Adsorption of Lead and Nickel Ions by a Ca-Bentonite, Treatment technologies I: characterizing soils and groundwater for cleanup planning, Sequoyah Convention, September 25, 2000 Google Scholar
  20. Levine, I.N.: Physical Chemistry, fourth edn. McGraw-Hill, North America (1995) Google Scholar
  21. Mellah, A., Chegrouche, S.: The removal of Zinc from aqueous solutions by natural bentonite. Water Res. 31(3), 621–629 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Miles, W.J.: Crystalline silica analysis Wyoming bentonite by X-ray diffraction after phosphoric acid digestion. Anal. Chim. Acta 286(1), 97–105 (1994) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Naseem, R., Tahir, S.S.: Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous/acidic solutions by using bentonite as an adsorbent. Water Res. 35(16), 3982–3986 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Olguin, M.T., Rios, M.S., Acosta, D., Bosch, P., Bulbulian, S.: UO22+ sorption on bentonite. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 218(1), 65–69 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Orumwense, F.F.O.: Removal of lead from water by adsorption on a kaolinitic clay. J. Cem. Technol. Biotechnol. 65(4), 363–369 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Patterson, S.H., Murray, H.H.: Clays in Industrial Minerals and Rocks, fourth edn., pp. 519–585. Am. Inst. Min. Metall. Petrol. Eng. Inc., New York (1975) Google Scholar
  27. Pradas, E.G., Sanchez, M.V.A., Perez, M.F., Viciana, M.S.: Adsorption of malathion from aqueous solution on homoionic bentonite samples. Agrochimica 37(12), 104–110 (1993) Google Scholar
  28. Puls, R.W., Bohn, H.L.: Sorption of Cd(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) by kaolinite and montmorillonite suspensions. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 52(5), 1289–1292 (1988) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Qadeer, R., Hanif, J., Saleem, M., Afzal, M.: Adsorption of gadolinium on activated-charcoal from electrolytic aqueous solution. Nucl. Chem. Articles 159(1), 155–165 (1992) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rao, M., Parwate, A.V., Bhole, A.G.: Removal of Cr and Ni from aqueous solutions using Bagasse and fly ash. Waste Manag. 22, 821–830 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rauf, N., Ikram, M., Tahir, S.S.: Adsorption studies of Cu(II) from aqueous/acidic solutions onto bentonite. Adsor. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 431–440 (1999) Google Scholar
  32. Saleem, M., Afzal, M., Qadeer, R., Hanif, J.: Selective adsorption of uranium on activated-charcoal rom electrolytic aqueous solutions. Sep. Sci. Tech. 27(2), 239–253 (1992) Google Scholar
  33. Sparks, D.L.: Environmental Soil Chemistry. Academic Press Inc., California (1995) Google Scholar
  34. Thomas, J.M., Thomas, W.J.: Introduction to the Principles of Heterogeneous Catalysis. Academic Press, London (1967) Google Scholar
  35. Westrich, H.R., Cygan, R.T., Brady, P.V., Nagy, K.L., Anderson, H.L.: Sorption Behaviour of Cs and Cd onto Oxide and Clay Surfaces, Govt. Reports, Announcements and Index (GRA&I), Issue-18 (1995) Google Scholar
  36. Zhang, Z.Z., Sparks, D.L., Scrivner, N.S.: Sorption and desorption of quaternary amine cations on clays. Environ. Sci. Technol. 27(8), 1625–1631 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Sciences & Arts, Department of ChemistryUniversity of Yüzüncü YılVanTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Sciences & Arts, Department of ChemistryUniversity of CumhuriyetSivasTurkey

Personalised recommendations