Adsorption

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 155–162

Chromium adsorption in olive stone activated carbon

  • Milton Rogério Pereira
  • Pedro Augusto Arroyo
  • Maria Angélica Simões Dornellas de Barros
  • Viviane Monteiro Sanches
  • Edson Antonio da Silva
  • Isabel Maria Fonseca
  • Rafael García Lovera
Article

Abstract

In this work, Cr(III) adsorption on activated carbon obtained from olive stones in an upflow fixed-bed column at 30C was studied. The flow rate influence on the breakthrough curves at a feed concentration of 0.87 meq/L was investigated in an attempt to minimize the diffusional resistances. Breakthrough curves for a flow range of 2–8 mL/min were obtained at 10.5 cm bed height and inlet diameter of 0.9 cm. The mass transfer parameters indicated that the bed minimal resistance was attained at 2 mL/min. Therefore, the data equilibrium was carried out until the bed was saturated at 2 mL/min. The dynamic system generated a favorable isotherm with a maximum chromium uptake of 0.45 meq/g. A column sorption mathematical model was created considering the axial dispersion in the column and the intraparticle diffusion rate-controlling steps. The isotherm was successfully modeled by the Langmuir equation and the mathematical model described the experimental dynamic data adequately for feed concentrations from 0.26 to 3.29 meq/L.

Keywords

Chromium Activated carbon Olive stones Adsorption Breakthrough 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arriagada, R., G. Bello, R. Cid, and R. García, “Retención de Cromo en Carbones Activados,” in Barros, M.A.S.D. et al. (Eds). Problemas Ambientales con Soluciones Catalíticas I. El Cromo en el Curtido de Pieles, CYTED, Madrid-Spain (2001).Google Scholar
  2. Barros, M.A.S.D., “Evaluation of the Chromium Exchange Mechanism in Zeolitic Systems,” Portuguese, Doctorate Thesis, Universidade Estadual de MaringÁ, MaringÁ, Brazil (2003).Google Scholar
  3. Barros, M.A.S.D., E.A. Silva, P.A. Arroyo, C.R.G. Tavares, R.M. Schneider, M. Suszek, and E.F. Sousa-Aguiar, “Removal of Cr(III) in the Fixed-bed Column and Batch Reactors Using as Adsorbent Zeolite NaX,” Chemical Engineering Science, 59, 5959–66 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barros, M.A.S.D., A.S. Zola, P.A. Arroyo, E.F. Sousa-Aguiar, and C.R.G. Tavares, “Binary Ion Exchange of Metal Ions in Y and X Zeolites,” Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 20, 413–21 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bautista-Toledo, I., J. Rivera-Utrilla, M.A. Ferros-García, and C. Moreno-Castilla, “Influence of the Oxygen Surface Complexes of Activated Carbons on the Adsorption of Chromium Ions from Aqueous Solutions: Effect of Sodium Chloride and Humic Acid,” Carbon, 32, 93–100 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brunauer S., L.S. Deming, W.S. Deming, and E. Teller, “On a Theory of the van der Waals Adsorption of Gases,” J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 62, 1723–1732 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Geankoplis, C.J., Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3th ed. PTR Prentice Hall. USA (1993).Google Scholar
  8. Hill, C.G., An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Kinetics and Reactor Design, John Wiley & Sons, USA (1977).Google Scholar
  9. Ko, D.C.K., J.F. Porter, and G. McKay, “Film-Pore Diffusion Model for Fixed-Bed Sorption of Copper and Cadmium Ions onto Bone Char,” Water Research, 35, 3876–3886 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lee, T.-Y., T.-S. Lu, S.-H. Chen, and K.-J. Chao, “Lanthanum-NaY Zeolite Ion Exchange. 2. Kinetics,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 29, 2024–2027 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lyubchik, S.I., A.I. Lyubchik, O.L. Galushko, L.P. Tikhonova, J. Vital, I.M. Fonseca, and S.B. Lyubchik, “Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Cr(III) Adsorption on the Aactivated Carbon from Co-mingled Wastes,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects, 242, 151–158 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Monser, L. and N. Adhoum, “Modified Activated Carbon for the Removal of Copper, Zinc, Chromium and Cyanide from Wastewater,” Separation and Purification Technology, 26, 137–146 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nelder, J.A. and R. Mead, “A Simplex Method for Function Minimization,” The Computer Journal, 7, 308–315 (1965).Google Scholar
  14. Nightingale Jr., E.R., “Phenomenological Theory of Ion Solvation Effective Radii of Hydrated Ions,” J. Phys. Chem., 63, 1381–1387 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rodríguez-Reinoso, F. and M. Molina-Sabio, “Textural and Chemical Characterization of Microporous Carbons,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 76, 271–294 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Silva, E.A., C.R.G. Tavares, L. Cardozo Filho, T.M.K. Ravagnani, and E.S. Cossich, “Biossorption of Chromium (III) by Biomass of Seaweed Sargassum Sp. in Fixed-Bed Column,” Adsorption, 10(4324), 129–138 (2004).Google Scholar
  17. Silva, E.A., “Study of the Removal of Metal Ions Chromium (III) and Copper(II) in Fixed-bed Column using as Biosorbent the Seaweed Algae Sargassum sp.,” Portuguese, Doctorate Thesis, FEQ/Unicamp, Campinas-Brazil (2001).Google Scholar
  18. Stuart, F.X. and D.T. Camp, “Comparison of Kinetic and Diffusional Models for Packed Bed Adsorption,” I & C Fundamentals, 6, 156–158 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Valdman E., L. Erijman, F.L.P. Pessoa, and S.G.F. Leite, “Continuous Biosorption of Cu and Zn by Immobilized Waste Biomass Sargassum sp.,” Process Biochemistry, 36, 869–873 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Zulfadhly, Z., S. Mashitah, and S. Bhatia, “Heavy Metals Removal in Fixed-bed Column by the Macro Fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus,” Environmental Pollution, 112, 463–470 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Milton Rogério Pereira
    • 1
  • Pedro Augusto Arroyo
    • 1
  • Maria Angélica Simões Dornellas de Barros
    • 1
  • Viviane Monteiro Sanches
    • 1
  • Edson Antonio da Silva
    • 2
  • Isabel Maria Fonseca
    • 3
  • Rafael García Lovera
    • 4
  1. 1.Departamento de Engenharia QuímicaUniversidade Estadual de MaringáMaringáBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Engenharia QuímicaUniversidade do Oeste do ParanáToledoBrazil
  3. 3.Centro de Química Fina e BiotecnologiaUniversidade Nova de LisboaCaparicaPortugal
  4. 4.Facultad de Ciencias QuímicasUniversidad de ConcepciónConcepciónChile

Personalised recommendations