First-Year Counselors-in-Training and Perceptions of the Group Environment

  • Linwood G. VereenEmail author
  • Lynn Bohecker
  • Anna H. Elliott
  • Kirsten LaMantia
  • Hailey N. Martinez
  • Nathaniel Burrow


This exploratory study examined the impact of three process groups for first-year, first-semester master’s degree students (N = 20, total). The Group Environment Scale (GES; Moos 1994, 2002), Forms I (Ideal) and R (Real), were utilized to measure the participants’ ideal perceptions and real perceptions of the small group environment. The overall results show that cohesion, leader support, task orientation, order/organization, and leader control were critical aspects of the experience. A group facilitator impact was found when comparing the results from the three different groups. Implications for group work training and future research are presented.


Group perceptions Counselors-in-training Group work training 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linwood G. Vereen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lynn Bohecker
    • 2
  • Anna H. Elliott
    • 3
  • Kirsten LaMantia
    • 4
  • Hailey N. Martinez
    • 5
  • Nathaniel Burrow
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Shippensburg University of PennsylvaniaShippensburgUSA
  2. 2.Liberty UniversityLynchburgUSA
  3. 3.Montana State UniversityBozemanUSA
  4. 4.Southeast Missouri State UniversityCape GirardeauUSA
  5. 5.Grand Canyon UniversityPhoenixUSA
  6. 6.Syracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA
  7. 7.University of Northern ColoradoGreeleyUSA

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