The Adult Scale of Parental Attachment-Short Form: Psychometric Properties, Factor Analyses, and Validation

  • Tony MichaelEmail author
  • Marilyn Snow


A 40-item short form version (ASPA-SF) of the Adult Scale of Parental Attachment (ASPA; Snow et al. 2005) was constructed with a focus on instrument item selection, factor structure, and psychometric properties. The ASPA is a self-report measure that assesses individuals’ perceptions of patterns of relating based on their relationships with both mother and father figures in childhood. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA), involving archived responses from the original work on developing the ASPA, supported the 5 factors of Safe, Dependent, Parentified, Fearful, and Distant in the ASPA-SF. Further verification of the ASPA-SF was established through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and validity was determined in relation to the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI; Parker et al. in British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1–10, 1979) with a separate group of 250 respondents.


Attachment Patterns of relating Self-report Personality Internal working model 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Counseling and PsychologyTennessee Technological UniversityCookevilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Leadership and Counselor EducationUniversity of MississippiUniversityUSA

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