Psychometric Properties of U.S.-Spanish Versions of the Grit and Resilience Scales with a Latinx Population

  • Mehmet A. KaramanEmail author
  • Javier Cavazos Vela
  • Alma A. Aguilar
  • Karla Saldana
  • Maria C. Montenegro


With increasing interest in factors related to positive development and the growing U.S. Spanish-speaking population, there is a growing need to provide validity evidence for instruments in Spanish with Latinx populations. This study reported psychometric properties of U.S.-Spanish versions of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS; Smith et al. 2008) and Short Grit Scale (Grit-S; Duckworth and Quinn 2009) with a sample of 193 Latinx college students. The confirmatory factor analyses showed that the Grit-S and the BRS had a good model fit. A discussion regarding the importance of these findings and implications for practice and research are provided.


Grit Resilience Positive psychology Instrument validation 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The research complies with ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehmet A. Karaman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Javier Cavazos Vela
    • 2
  • Alma A. Aguilar
    • 3
  • Karla Saldana
    • 2
  • Maria C. Montenegro
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Educational Sciences, Counseling and GuidanceKilis 7 Aralık UniversityKilisTurkey
  2. 2.Department of CounselingThe University of Texas Rio Grande ValleyEdinburgUSA
  3. 3.International Education ServicesBrownsvilleUSA

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