Political Ideology and Perceptions of Social Justice Advocacy Among Members of the American Counseling Association

  • Janeé M. Steele
  • Gary H. Bischof
  • Stephen E. Craig


This study explored perceptions of social justice advocacy among liberal, moderate, and conservative members (N = 214) of the American Counseling Association (ACA). Results showed that conservative participants had somewhat less favorable perceptions of social justice advocacy, but generally did not differ statistically from liberal and moderate participants. Statistically significant differences, however, were found among extremely liberal participants. All participants generally supported the use of ACA resources for social activism. Implications and limitations are discussed.


Social Justice Advocacy Political Ideology American Counseling Association 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janeé M. Steele
    • 1
  • Gary H. Bischof
    • 1
  • Stephen E. Craig
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Counselor Education and Counseling PsychologyWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA
  2. 2.Family and Consumer SciencesWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA

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