Advertisement

Political Ideology and Perceptions of Social Justice Advocacy Among Members of the American Counseling Association

  • Janeé M. Steele
  • Gary H. Bischof
  • Stephen E. Craig
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

This study explored perceptions of social justice advocacy among liberal, moderate, and conservative members (N = 214) of the American Counseling Association (ACA). Results showed that conservative participants had somewhat less favorable perceptions of social justice advocacy, but generally did not differ statistically from liberal and moderate participants. Statistically significant differences, however, were found among extremely liberal participants. All participants generally supported the use of ACA resources for social activism. Implications and limitations are discussed.

Keywords

Social Justice Advocacy Political Ideology American Counseling Association 

References

  1. Adams, I. (2001). Political ideology today. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  2. American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American National Elections Studies. (n.d.). ANES American National Election Studies. Retrieved from: http://www.electionstudies.org/
  4. Burns, L. (1998). Make sure it's service learning, not just community service. The Education Digest, 64(2), 38–41.Google Scholar
  5. Canfield, B. S. (2007, December). Back to the future of counseling [From the President]. Counseling Today, p. 5Google Scholar
  6. Canfield, B. S. (2008a, January). Valuing diversity of thought [From the President]. Counseling Today, p. 5Google Scholar
  7. Canfield, B. S. (2008b, May). The informed counselor [From the President]. Counseling Today, p. 5Google Scholar
  8. Chang, C. Y., Crethar, H. C., & Ratts, M. J. (2010). Social justice: A national imperative for counselor education and supervision. Counselor Education & Supervision, 50(2), 82–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Constantine, M. G., Hage, S. M., Kindaichi, M. M., & Bryant, R. M. (2007). Social justice and multicultural issues: Implications for the practice and training of counselors and counseling psychologists. Journal of Counseling & Development, 85(1), 24–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. (2009). CACREP accreditation manual. Alexandria, VA: AuthorGoogle Scholar
  11. Crethar, H. C., & Winterowd, C. L. (2012). Special section: Spiritual, ethical, and religious issues and social justice in counseling: Values and social justice in counseling. Counseling and Values, 57(1), 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dunn, C. W., & Woodard, J. D. (2003). The conservative tradition in America. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Freeden, M. (1996). Ideologies and political theory: A conceptual approach. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.Google Scholar
  14. Garson, G. D. (2010). Multiple regression. Statnotes: Topics in multivariate analysis. Retrieved from: http://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/statnote.htm.Google Scholar
  15. Goodman, J. (2009). Starfish, salmon, and whales: An introduction to the special section. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87(3), 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harris, D. B. (2005). Postmodernist diversions in African American thought. Journal of Black Studies, 36(2), 209–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harrist, S., & Richardson, F. C. (2012). Disguised ideologies in counseling and social justice work. Counseling and Values, 57(1), 38–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2007). School counseling to close the achievement gap: A social justice framework for success. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  19. Hunsaker, R. (2008, April). Social justice: An inconvenient irony [Opinion]. Counseling Today, p. 21, 43Google Scholar
  20. Hunsaker, R. C. (2011). Counseling and social justice. Academic Questions, 24(3), 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jost, J. T., Federico, C. M., & Napier, J. L. (2009). Political ideology: Its structure, functions, and elective affinities. Annuall Review on Psychology, 60, 307–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kerlinger, F. N. (1984). Liberalism and conservatism. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  23. King, J. H. (2010, June). Are professional counselors becoming social workers? [Opinion]. Counseling Today, p. 51Google Scholar
  24. Knight, K. (1999). Liberalism and conservatism. In J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver, & L. S. Wrightsman (Eds.), Measures of social psychological attitudes (Vol. 2, pp. 59–158). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  25. Lee, C. C. (Ed.). (2007). Counseling for social justice (2nd ed.). Alexandria: American Counseling Association.Google Scholar
  26. Lewis, J., Arnold, M., House, R., & Toporek, R. (2003). Advocacy competencies. Retrieved October 12, 2005, from http://www.counseling.org/Resources.Google Scholar
  27. Linnemeyer, R. M. (2009). Social justice advocacy among graduate students: An empirical investigation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Retrieved June 29, 2010 from Dissertations and Theses database.Google Scholar
  28. Lockhard, F. W., & Stack, C. L. (2008, January). ACA’s role doesn’t include supporting personal political agendas [Letters]. Counseling Today, p. 4Google Scholar
  29. Mattis, J. S. (2001). Religion and African American political life. Political Psychology, 22(2), 263–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McClure, B. A., & Russo, T. R. (1996). The politics of counseling: Looking back and forward. Counseling & Values, 40(3), 162–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Middleton, R. A., Ergüner-Tekinalp, B., Williams, N. F., Stadler, H. A., & Dow, J. E. (2011). Racial identity development and multicultural counseling competencies of White mental health practitioners. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 11(2), 201–218.Google Scholar
  32. Neville, H., Spanierman, L., & Doan, B.-T. (2006). Exploring the association between color-blind racial ideology and multicultural counseling competencies. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(2), 275–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ng, K.-M., & Noonan, B. M. (2012). Internationalization of the counseling profession: Meaning, scope and concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 34(1), 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nilsson, J. E., & Schmidt, C. K. (2005). Social justice advocacy among graduate students in counseling: An initial exploration. Journal of College Student Development, 46(3), 267–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ottavi, T. M., Pope-Davis, D. B., & Dings, J. G. (1994). Relationship between White racial identity attitudes and self-reported multicultural counseling competencies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41(2), 149–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS survival manual. New York: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Parikh, S. B., Post, P., & Flowers, C. (2011). Relationship between a belief in a just world and social justice advocacy attitudes of school counselors. Counseling and Values, 56(1–2), 57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Paylo, M. J. (2007). Characteristics of counselors that advocate for clients. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia. Retrieved July 8, 2008 from Dissertations and Theses database.Google Scholar
  39. Smith, S. D., Reynolds, C. A., & Rovnak, A. (2009). A critical analysis of the social advocacy movement in counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87(4), 483–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Steele, J. M. (2008). Preparing counselors to advocate for social justice: A liberation model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 48(2), 74–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sweeney, T. J. (2001). Counseling: Historical origins and philosophical roots. In D. C. Locke, J. E. Myers, & E. L. Herr (Eds.), The handbook of counseling (pp. 3–26). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zipp, J. F., & Fenwick, R. (2006). Is the academy a liberal hegemony? Public Opinion Quarterly. Volume, 70(3), 304–326.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janeé M. Steele
    • 1
  • Gary H. Bischof
    • 1
  • Stephen E. Craig
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Counselor Education and Counseling PsychologyWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA
  2. 2.Family and Consumer SciencesWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA

Personalised recommendations