Advertisement

Applied Composite Materials

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 97–111 | Cite as

Influence of Sea Water Aging on the Mechanical Behaviour of Acrylic Matrix Composites

  • P. Davies
  • P-Y. Le Gac
  • M. Le Gall
Article

Abstract

A new matrix resin was recently introduced for composite materials, based on acrylic resin chemistry allowing standard room temperature infusion techniques to be used to produce recyclable thermoplastic composites. This is a significant advance, particularly for more environmentally-friendly production of large marine structures such as boats. However, for such applications it is essential to demonstrate that composites produced with these resins resist sea water exposure in service. This paper presents results from a wet aging study of unreinforced acrylic and glass and carbon fibre reinforced acrylic composites. It is shown that the acrylic matrix resin is very stable in seawater, showing lower property losses after seawater aging than those of a commonly-used epoxy matrix resin. Carbon fibre reinforced acrylic also shows good property retention after aging, while reductions in glass fibre reinforced composite strengths suggest that specific glass fibre sizing may be required for optimum durability.

Keywords

Acrylic Thermoplastic Infusion Seawater Immersion 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Pierre Gérard and Sebastien Taillemite of Arkema, for the gift of unreinforced and carbon fibre reinforced acrylic specimens, and for helpful discussions.

References

  1. 1.
    Smith CS.: Design of Marine Structures in Composite Materials. Elsevier, London (1990)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mouritz A., Gellert E., Burchill P., Challis K.: Review of advanced composite structures for naval ships and submarines. Compos. Struct. 53(1), 21–41 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shenoi R.A., Wellicome J.F.: Composite materials in Maritime Structures. Technology series, Cambridge Ocean (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barblou P, APER (Association pour la Plaisance Eco-Responsable), Network of dismantling recreational craft in France, presented at “The Future of Yacht Recycling”, METS 2015, 16th November (2015), Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smith R (Editor), Biodegradable Polymers for Industrial Applications, CRC Woodhead Publishers, (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Josserand C., Schirrer R., Davies P.: Influence of water on crack propagation in poly methyl methacrylate: craze stress and craze fibril lifetime. J. Mater. Sci. 30, 1772–1780 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mouritz AP, Gibson AG, Fire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials, Springer publishers, (2006), p34.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Manfredi L.B., Rodrıguez E.S., Wladyka-Przybylak M., Vazquez A.: Thermal degradation and fire resistance of unsaturated polyester, modified acrylic resins and their composites with natural fibres. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 91, 255–261 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kalachandra S., Turner D.T.: Water sorption of plasticized denture acrylic lining materials, pp. 161–164. Dent. Mater, May (1989)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arima T., Murata H., Hamada T.: Properties of highly cross-linked auto-polymerizing reline acrylic resins, pp. 55–59. J. Prosthetic Dentistry, January (1995)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Weitsman Y.J.: Fluid Effects in Polymers and Polymeric Composites. Springer, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Davies P., Rajapakse Y. (eds.): Durability of Composites in a Marine Environment. Springer, Amsterdam (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gutierrez J, LeLay F, Hoarau P, A study of the aging of glass fibre-resin composites in a marine environment, in Proceedings Nautical Construction with composite materials, editors P. Davies, L. Lemoine, Paris, (1992, IFREMER) Publication ISSN-0761–3989, pp 338–346Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gellert EP, Turley DM, Seawater immersion ageing of glass-fibre reinforced polymer laminates for marine applications, Composites Part A, 30, Issue 11, November (1999), 1259–1265Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Davies P., Mazeas F., Casari P.: Sea water aging of glass reinforced composites: shear behaviour and damage modeling. J. Compos. Mater. 35(15), 1343–1372 (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kootsookos A., Mouritz A.P.: Seawater durability of glass- and carbon-polymer composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 64, 1503–1511 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marouani S, Curtil L, Hamelin P, Ageing of carbon/epoxy and carbon/vinylester composites used in the reinforcement and/or the repair of civil engineering structures, Compos. Part B, Volume 43, Issue 4, June (2012), 2020–2030Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Siriruk A, Penumadu D, Degradation in fatigue behavior of carbon fiber–vinyl ester based composites due to sea environment, Compos. Part B, Volume 61, May (2014), 94–98Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee S-B, Rockett TJ, Hoffman RD, Interactions of water with unsaturated polyester, vinyl ester and acrylic resins, Polymer, (1992), 33, 17 3691–3697Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pritchard G., Speake S.D.: The use of water absorption kinetic data to predict laminate property changes. Composites. 18(3), 227–232 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Boisseau A., Davies P., Thiebaud F.: Sea water ageing of composites for ocean energy conversion systems: influence of glass fibre type on static behaviour. Appl. Compos. Mater. 19, 459–473 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tual N., Carrere N., Davies P., Bonnemains T., Lolive E.: Characterization of sea water ageing effects on mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites for tidal turbine blades. Compos. Part A. 78, 380–389 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IFREMER Centre Bretagne, Marine Structures LaboratoryPlouzanéFrance

Personalised recommendations