Applied Composite Materials

, Volume 21, Issue 6, pp 805–825 | Cite as

Effect of Processing Conditions on Fracture Resistance and Cohesive Laws of Binderfree All-Cellulose Composites

  • S. GoutianosEmail author
  • R. Arévalo
  • B. F. Sørensen
  • T. Peijs


The fracture properties of all-cellulose composites without matrix were studied using Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) sandwich specimens loaded with pure monotonically increasing bending moments, which give stable crack growth. The experiments were conducted in an environmental scanning electron microscope to a) perform accurate measurements of both the fracture energy for crack initiation and the fracture resistance and b) observe the microscale failure mechanisms especially in the the wake of the crack tip. Since the mechanical behaviour of the all-cellulose composites was non-linear, a general method was first developed to obtain fracture resistance values from the DCB specimens taking into account the non-linear material response. The binderfree all-cellulose composites were prepared by a mechanical refinement process that allows the formation of intramolecular bonds between the cellulose molecules during the drying process. Defibrilation of the raw cellulose material is done in wet medium in a paper-like process. Panels with different refining time were tested and it was found than an increase in fibre fibrillation results in a lower fracture resistance.


All-cellulose Binderfree Fracture resistance Cohesive laws Bridging mechanisms Non-linear response 



The authors wish to thank Ove Rasmussen (Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark) for assistance with specimen preparation. RA would like to acknowledge financial support through the Technology Strategy Board (TSB) funded REFLECT project. BFS was supported by the Danish Centre for Composite Structures and Materials for Wind Turbines (DCCSM), Grant No. 09-067212 from the Danish Strategic Research Council.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Goutianos
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. Arévalo
    • 2
  • B. F. Sørensen
    • 1
  • T. Peijs
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Wind EnergySection of Composites and Materials Mechanics, Technical University of DenmarkRoskildeDenmark
  2. 2.Queen MaryUniversity of London, Centre of Materials Research, School of Engineering and Materials ScienceLondonUK

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